Saturday, January 29, 2011

Egypt in crisis

There are several horoscopes circulating for Egypt. One event seems to be of greater relevance than others by offering a better explanation of the present turmoil than other charts proposed.[1] This is the time when the Sultan proclaimed the independence and kingdom of Egypt at 10:00 am on March 15, 1922 in Cairo. The resulting national horoscope of Egypt has 15° 41‘ Taurus in the ascendant. This means that planets placed on or near to this degree in any sign become important for the significations of the house of placement and those houses they aspect. To understand the natal potential of the chart we must first review the characteristics of the nation and its history.

Egypt today
The Arab Republic of Egypt is a country in North Africa with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge to Palestine. Egypt is considered a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Islamic world. The country covers an area of more than 1 million km2 (390,000 mi2). It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west. Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East, with an estimated 79 million people, most of which live near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about 40,000 km2, where the only arable land is found. By comparison, Israel‘s 8 million residents inhabit 22,000 km2.[2]

Egypt and Muslim civilization
In the ancient past, the land of Egypt was inhabited by peoples belonging to the Nile Valley Civilization. The kingdom of Ancient Egypt was formed there around 3150 BC, when the first Pharaoh united upper and lower Egypt and it lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, when the area fell under Roman domination. After Roman and Byzantine domination, Egypt was absorbed into the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs in AD 639 and became a part of the Ottoman empire, which lasted until 1923. Modern Egypt is therefore considered to be a part of Muslim civilization, as its beginnings can be traced to the Arab and Ottoman rule of Egypt.

European influence
European influences gradually manifest in the 19th century, following a brief French invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. In 1801, the French were expelled by Ottoman Mamluk but in their place, British forces were allowed in Egypt. Local dissatisfaction with European intrusion led to the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879. Fearing a reduction of their control, Britain and France intervened militarily in 1882, installing a figurehead ruler in a de facto British protectorate. In 1914 the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the head of state, which had changed from pasha to khedive in 1867, was changed to sultan, to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan, who was backing the Central powers in World War I. After the World War I, the Egyptian nationalist movement obtained a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled leaders of the movement in 1919, the country arose in its first modern revolution. The revolt led Great Britain to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on February 22, 1922.

Independence and sovereignty
On March 14, 1922, the British House of Commons passed an Act abolishing the Protectorate. On the following day, the Sultan formally proclaimed Egyptian Independence and the Kingdom of Egypt. This may be considered the birth of the new national entity. The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. A Prime Minister was elected in 1924. In 1936 the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded.

Formation of the Republic
Continued instability due to remaining British influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free Officers Movement, led by Gamel Abdel Nasser, forced King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad. On June 18, 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared. Importantly, this event was a constitutional change. As such, it does not represent the birth of a new national entity. Nasser became President in June, 1956. British forces, which had remained in Egypt despite the end of the Protectorate, completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on June 13, 1956. Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956, prompting the 1956 Suez Crisis.

War and peace with IsraelNasser died three years after the Six Day War in 1967, when Israel invaded and occupied Sinai. He was succeeded by Anwar Sadat on September 28, 1970. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched an economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition. On October 6, 1973, at 2:05 pm, Egypt allied with Syria attacked Israel in the so-called Yom-Kippur War or October War. This was a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. Sadat hoped to regain some of the territory with force and the rest of the peninsula by diplomacy. The conflict sparked an international crisis between the US and the USSR, both of whom intervened. While the war ended with a military Israeli victory, it presented Sadat with a political victory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in return for peace with Israel. Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the signing of the Egypt–Israel peace treaty on March 26, 1979 in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League, but it was supported by most Egyptians. A fundamentalist military soldier assassinated Sadat in Cairo in 1981.

Era of Mubarak
Sadat was succeeded by Hosni Mubarak on October 14, 1981. Born on May 4, 1928, Mubarak has ruled Egypt for almost 30 years. During all of this time, a state of emergency has reigned, possibly reflecting a growing secular-religious divide. Apparently, Egypt has been a veritable police state, with 30 thousand people imprisoned for their political beliefs. In 2003, the Egyptian Movement for Change was launched to oppose the Mubarak regime and to establish democracy and greater civil liberties. On May 25, 2005, a national referendum was held on changing the constitution to allow direct elections and allowing opponents. On September 7, 2005, the first presidential elections that allowed opponents was held. Mubarak won the elections. Following political change in Tunisia in mid January, it seems the patience of the people was finally broken. On 25 January 2011, protests broke out that quickly escalated into significant civil unrest and rioting. On January 29, 2011, Mubarak fired his government and refused calls for him to step down. Rather, he appointed intelligence chief, Omar Suleiman, as his new Vice President. Apparently, these measures have not been enought to satisfy the protesters, which include diverse parties like the banned Society of Muslim Brothers and former diplomat Mohamed ElBaradei, reflecting concerns of middle class Egyptians. In the current chaotic situation, the military has increased its presence and seems to have become the real power in the country.
Natal potential
When the sign Taurus, ruled by Venus, rises in the horoscope, an emphasis is placed on material pursuits and enjoyments. Taurus in the ascendant also gives a stable nature. By virtue of their house lordship, the planets Jupiter, Mars, Venus , Rahu and Ketu become functional malefic planets for Taurus in the ascendant, capable of producing setbacks. The Sun, Moon, Mercury and Saturn, however, are functional benefics, giving support to those things which they touch in a horoscope. A weakened planet, both FM and FB, becomes less capable of supporting the indications ruled by its house.
   The 6th lord Venus is exalted at 9° 32’ Pisces and in the 11th house. By itself, this promotes the financial stability and health matters, which would also be associated with income, friendships and alliances. However, as functional malefic Ketu is conjunct the MEP of the 11th house, this introduces an influence of separation into the income and alliances, which weakens these indications. The average annual income of Egyptians (Per Capita GDP) is estimated at $6,200 in 2010, which is only one-fifth of the average incomes in the advanced industrial countries but closer to that of China ($7,100) and India ($3,400).[3] While the economy has been growing in recent years, living conditions for the average Egyptian are described as “poor”.
   Moon as 3rd lord is well placed at 27° 20’ Virgo and the 5th house, however, it is weak in old age and the 5th house is afflicted by the conjunction of Rahu with the MEP of the house. As such, there is an emphasis on creativity in communication. The energy of Rahu on this house would tend to bring out stubbornness, passion and pleasure seeking in creative areas of life. As 5th lord Mercury is well placed at 3° 49’ Aquarius and 10th house, this would give an analytical and creative approach, which would be expressed in governmental affairs, the laws and foreign trade. As the sign Aquarius is in the tenth house, this adds to the emphasis on things technical with respect to the indications of the 10th house.
   With 10th lord Saturn placed at 12° 47’ Virgo, this gives a positive influence of government and laws on creative activities. However, the conjunction of Saturn and Rahu would bring a lot of manipulation to the government management.
   An interesting element of Egypt's vast historical heritage is linked to this placement. By virtue of its size and location, Egypt enjoys influence in the Arab world. However, its 2nd house is afflicted by the 12th lord, which introduces potential loss of status and wealth and communal harmony. Moreover, the 10th house contains the sign Aquarius and its lord Saturn is afflicted by conjunction with Rahu and being placed in the deeply afflicted 5th house of entertainment, where it is also in an opposition aspect with 6th lord Venus. These influences on the lord of government suggest considerable problems and oppositions. In recent decades, Egypt has played the role of peacemaker in the Arab world but has otherwise not had a major role. In fact, with Mars as 12th lord is placed at 18° 53’ Scorpio and in the MEP of the 7th house. Due to over 3° orb, the affliction of Mars to the non-Moolatrikona houses is not severe. However, its aspect on the 10th house, an MT sign ruled by weak Saturn, losses or separation in the domain of government are to be expected. Aside from that the position of Mars is strong, also being in its own sign Scorpio. Mars is a general indicator of the military and police.
   As the 4th lord Sun is at 1° 11’ Pisces and in the 11th house, it is well placed but weak. Natural resources and communal harmony would be linked to the goals and ideals. As the 4th house rules the inclinations, the weak Sun is expected to add to the materialism in the general approach to life. Moreover, as the Sun is the general indicator of the leader of the country, this suggests his condition would be vulnerable to setbacks.
In terms of Egypt's heritage, the placement and afflictions involving Saturn and the weakness of the 4th lord makes the heritage, a source of hopes and entertainment, However, the heritage would also be subject to pronounced manipulations that could lead to conflict. As it turns out, priceless Egyptian treasures and artifacts are kept on permanent display in major museums of the former colonial powers. Moreover, the ancient Egyptian civilization is not the same civilization that is now in Egypt. An interesting aspect of the heritage is the mummification of the rulers of ancient Egypt. This process would be linked to the use of medicinal knowledge (Venus) and preservation techniques (Saturn). The illusion (Rahu) of material life after death gave rise to these historical artifacts (Saturn).
   Jupiter as the 8th lord of obstacles and endings is the most malefic planet for Taureans. It is placed at 23° 42’ Virgo and 5th house, where it is conjunct the 3rd lord Moon. This causes problems for the indications of the Moon and the 3rd house, including the communication, transportation and initiatives. Having reviewed some of the natal potential, let us now look at some significant historical events.

Significant historical events
1. Military coup d’état in 1952
2. Suez crisis in 1956
3. Six day war in 1967
4. Assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981
5. Popular uprising in January 2011

1. Military coup d’état in 1952"The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 began on July 23, 1952, with a military coup d'état by a group of young army officers who named themselves "The Free Officers Movement". The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Farouk I. However, the movement had more political ambitions and soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and establish a republic. The success of the revolution inspired numerous Arab and African countries to remove pro-Western and specifically pro-British Empire and pro-French Empire monarchies and potentates behind the veil of ending corrupt regimes."[4]
Jupiter-Ketu period was operating. Jupiter is the most malefic planet being the 8th lord of obstacles and endings. It is placed in the 5th house of creativity, management and emotion. It could bring problems for young people and university life, more so as Rahu, the planet of manipulation and deceit, is at 15° 58' Virgo, exactly afflicts the MEP of the 5th house. Ketu, the planet of sudden and explosive events, is placed at 15° 58' Pisces in the MEP of the 11th house of income and ideals, from where it afflicts the 3rd house of communication and enterprise, 5th house and 7th house of leisure and foreign policy. The natal nodal afflictions weaken all the odd numbered houses and their lords. 4th lord Sun is well placed in the 11th house, but it is in infancy and placed in a house weakened by affliction from Ketu and Rahu. This suggests the leader of the country is not a consistently strong figure in the world.
   At the time of the coup,
- transit Ketu was at 28° Cancer and 3rd house, conjunct transit 3rd lord Moon at 25° Cancer.
- transit 6th lord Venus at 15° Cancer and 3rd house was closely afflicted by natal Ketu
- transit 10th lord Saturn at 16° Virgo and 5th house was closely conjunct natal Rahu
- transit Rahu at 28° Capricorn was closely aspecting natal Moon in 5th house.
- transit 12th lord Mars was at 18° Libra and conjunct the MEP of the 6th house. Meanwhile transit 8th lord Jupiter was placed in the 12th house.
- transit Sun was at 7° Cancer and 3rd house, a house dually afflicted by transit Venus and natal Ketu.
   These events do not contradict the hypothesis that this horoscope has merit, but closer study is necessary to raise the confidence.

2. Suez crisis in 1956Following Nasser's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal, Britain, France and Israel waged war on Egypt. At 2:35 pm on 29 October 1956, Israel invaded the Sinai desert.[5] The three allies were successful in attaining their military objectives but pressure from the United States and the USSR at the United Nations and elsewhere forced them to withdraw. By November 6, the war was over. Britain and France completely failed in their political and strategic aim of controlling the canal. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, attaining the freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran and the pacification of the Egyptian-Israeli border through United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF).Jupiter-Moon period was operating. Transit 3rd lord Moon at 21° Leo and 4th house was exactly opposite transit Mars at 22° Aquarius and 10th house. Transit 8th lord Jupiter at 0° Virgo and 5th house was opposite natal 4th lord Sun at 1° Pisces and 11th house. Transit 6th lord Venus at 4° Virgo was also opposite natal Sun. Transit Ketu at 5° Taurus aspected transit Venus. Transit Rahu at 5° Scorpio aspected natal Sun. Transit 12th lord Mars also aspected natal 8th lord Jupiter at 23° Virgo. Transit 5th lord Mercury and transit 4th house Sun were in the 6th house. These combinations iare consistent with violent conflict concerning natural resources and challenges to the leader of the country.

3. Six day war in 1967After the 1956 Suez Crisis, Egypt agreed to the stationing of a UNEF in the Sinai to ensure all parties would comply with the 1949 Armistice Agreements. In the following years there were numerous minor border clashes between Israel and its Arab neighbors. The Six-Day War of 1967 was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, between Israel on the one hand and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria on the other. The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. At the war's end, Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
Saturn-Ketu period was operating. Transit Ketu was in the 6th house of conflict. Transit 12th lord Mars was at 22° Virgo conjunct natal 8th lord Jupiter at 23°, suggesting losses of heritage. Transit 4th lord Sun at 20° Taurus and 1st house was opposite natal 12th lord Mars at 19° Scorpio and 7th house, suggesting loss of land (Sinai peninsula). Transit Jupiter at 8° Cancer and 3rd house was conjunct transit Venus at 5° Cancer and in exact aspect to natal 6th lord Venus at 9° Pisces and 11th house, suggesting endings from conflict. More so as transit 3rd lord Moon, dispositor of the planets in Cancer, was in the 12th house conjunct transit Rahu. Transit 10th lord Saturn was conjunct natal Rahu at 16° Pisces and the MEP of the 11th house. The Egypt government could have been deceived at the outset of the war.

4. Assassination of President Anwar Sadat in 1981

The assassination occurred while Sadat was reviewing a military parade, involving display of the air force. He was surrounded by bodyguards. When a military carrier with troops stopped in front of the parade stand and the troops lined up with raised rifles, he stood up to salute them, offering them a clear target. The firing then began and he and numerous officials and dignitaries were killed or injured. Vice President Hosni Mubarak survived. The motivation of the killers was apparently religious extremist views.[6]Mercury-Mercury period was operating. Mercury is 5th lord of creativity, management and speculation. It is placed in infancy at 3° 49' Aquarius and 10th house of government and the rule of law. It thus has just over 70 percent strength by degree, but as its own house is severely afflicted, the strength is much less.
   At the time,
- Transit 8th lord Jupiter was at 25° 31' Virgo where it was conjunct natal Jupiter at 23° 42' Virgo.
- Transit 4th lord Sun at 19° 43' Virgo and transit 10th lord Saturn at 19° 17' Virgo were thus conjunct in the MEP of the 5th house, which would be favourable. However, they were also conjunct natal 8th lord Jupiter and natal Rahu at 15° 58' Virgo. As such they were severly harmed.
- Transit Virgo was at 10° 15' Libra and 6th house of conflict and hence weak, serving to weaken the indications of the 5th house and all the planets placed in it.
- Adding to the weakness of transit Mercury was the placement of its dispositor, transit 6th lord Venus at 3° 46' Scorpio and the 7th house under close aspect of transit Rahu at 4° 54' Cancer and the 3rd house.

5. Popular uprising in January 2011
The 2011 Egyptian protests are a series of street demonstrations, protests, and civil disobedience acts that have been taking place in Egypt since 25 January 2011. On January 29, the casualties exceeded 100 dead and 2000 injured and thousands of inmates at a major prison in Cairo escaped.[6] The demonstrations and riots began in the weeks after the successful Tunisian uprising. A general demand of the protesters is that President Mubarak steps down as President. Specific grievances include police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections, corruption, restrictions on freedom of speech, high unemployment, low minimum wages, insufficient housing, food price inflation, and poor living conditions. There are claims that the USA has had a role in the uprising.[8]
   Several slow-moving planetary configurations were expected to produce difficulty or upheaval in countries where they affect sensitive natal placements in the national horoscope. These placements are:
• Saturn at 23° Virgo (stationary from 12/21 2010 to 3/5 2011)
• Rahu at 8° 30' Sagittarius (stationary from 11/5 2010 to 2/5 2011)
• Ketu at 8° 30' Gemini (11/5 2010 - 2/5 2011)
• Conjunction of Sun and Mars (within 5° orb from 1/14 2011 to 2/28 2011)
   The conjunction of Sun and Mars becomes exact on February 3 when both planets will be at 20° Capricorn. Sun enters Aquarius on February 14 and Mars on February 16, when the orb of the conjunction will be over 2°.

The dual malefic Venus-Mars period is operating. Transit 10th lord (government) Saturn (masses) is stationary at 23° 12' Virgo and 5th house (management, emotions) where it is conjunct natal 8th lord (obstacles, endings) Jupiter (expansion, justice) at 23° 42' Virgo. Transit Jupiter at 7° 01' Pisces and 11th house (hopes, ideals) is in applying conjunction with natal 6th lord (conflict, communal disharmony) Venus 9° 32' Pisces. Transit 12th lord Mars at 15° 41' Capricorn and 9th house is conjunct transit 4th lord (communal harmony) Sun (President) at 14° 00' Capricorn, with both planets under aspect of natal Rahu at 15° 58' Virgo and 5th house.
   On the SAMVA discussion list the following was predicted based on this recently discovered chart on January 27, 2011:

"This chart suggests the next few days, especially the next 24-48 hours, will be critical in terms of the survival of the President...This would be fiercely difficult time in the country...At minimum, government change is very likely and it does not look good for the President, given the weak but well placed Sun in the chart."[9]

   Post script: On January 29, 2011 Mubarak addressed the nation and announced that he had asked for his government to resign. He appointed Omar Suleiman, his intelligence chief, as his vice president. On February 11, after escalating protests, Mubarak stepped down as President.

Difficult autumn ahead
Finally, the aspects of the Autumn 2011, suggest additional difficulty in the political life of Egypt.

[1] “On the ground amid Egyptians' protests.” CNN. January 29, 2011, 1456 GMT
[2] Wikipedia
[3] The CIA Fact Book
[4] The Egyptian Revolution of 1952
[5] Time of beginning of war over the Suez canal.
[6] Islamic militant cells and Sadat's assassination
[7] "Death toll in Egypt's protests tops 100", Reuters. Saturday, January 29, 2011 6:40pm EST.
[8] "Egypt protests: America's secret backing for rebel leaders behind uprising.“ Telegraph - 9:23PM GMT 28 Jan 2011.
[9] Message #19866 on SAMVA list on Thurday, January 27, 2011 at 11:48 pm.