|2018 protests of the yellow vests|
HISTORY OF THE REPUBLIC AND ITS FORMS
The Republic first appeared in France as a system of government and model of sovereignty on September 21, 1792. Prior to 1791, there were no republicans in France. Leading philosophers like Montesquieu, Voltaire and the Physiocrats viewed republican government as an echo from the hoary past, unsuited to the complexities of modern life. Nevertheless, as the monarchy was abolished, tensions emerged between royalist and republican forces as to the form of government. This is seen in monarchical disruptions to the Republic form of government in 1799, 1804 and 1852. Despite this prevailing confusion, the philosophers agreed on the enlightenment ideals, which had already taken root in the founding of the USA in 1781. Indeed, the burgeois revolutionaries were motivated by the ideals of “equality, fraternity and liberty“ and considered it the antithesis of monarchical rule.
France has had numerous constitutions in the post-revolutionary era, which highlights the flexibility and adaptability of the nation, as well as vulnerability to recurring situational stresses. The Kingdom of France, under the Ancien Régime, was an absolute monarchy and lacked a formal constitution and relied on custom. All five republics and interrim forms of government since the revolution have devised their own constitutions, or rules governing the national life. Importantly, they have all adhered, fully or in part, to the founding revolutionary ideals. However, when briefly deviating from the republican form of government, the relevant constitution was later abolished and the Republican tradition reestablished.
- The Constitution of 1791, adopted 3 September 1791, established the Kingdom of the French, a constitutional monarchy, and the Legislative Assembly
- The Girondin constitutional project in process of being adopted before the coup that led to the Montagnard faction being in control
- The Constitution of 1793, ratified 24 June 1793, but never applied due to the suspension of all ordinary legality 10 October 1793 (under the French First Republic)
- The Constitution of the Year III, adopted 22 August 1795, established the Directory
- The Constitution of the Year VIII, adopted 24 December 1799, established the Consulate
- The Constitution of the Year X, adopted 1 August 1802, established the Consulate for Life
- The Constitution of the Year XII, adopted 18 May 1804, established the First French Empire
- Following the restoration of the Monarchy
- The Charter of 1814, adopted 4 June 1814, established the Bourbon Restoration
- The Charter of 1815, adopted 22 April 1815, was used during the Hundred Days
- The Charter of 1830, adopted 14 August 1830, established the July Monarchy
- The French Constitution of 1848, adopted 4 November 1848, established the French Second Republic
- The French Constitution of 1852, adopted 14 January 1852, established the French Second Empire
- The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 of the French Third Republic, 24 and 25 February, and 16 July 1875
- The French Constitutional Law of 1940, adopted 10 July 1940, established Vichy France
- The French Constitutional Law of 1945, adopted 1945, organized the Provisional Government of the French Republic
- The French Constitution of 1946, adopted 27 October 1946, established the French Fourth Republic
- The French Constitution of 1958, adopted 4 October 1958, established the French Fifth Republic (the current Constitution in force)
|Napoleon in 1799|
The First Empire was created in 1804 by Napoleon. It was based on the Constitution of the Year XII, which amended the earlier Constitution of the Year VIII and Constitution of the Year X. Napoleon, which had previously been First Consul for Life, with wide-ranging powers, became Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. Importantly, Napoleon took an oath which gave the appearance of pledging fealty to the revolutionary ideals.
"I swear to maintain the integrity of the territory of the Republic, to respect and cause to be respected the laws of the concordat and the liberty of worship, to respect and cause to be respected equality of rights, political and civil liberty, the irrevocability of the sales of the national lands; not to raise any impost, nor to establish any tax except in virtue of the law; to maintain the institution of the Legion of Honor; to govern in the sole view of the interest, the welfare and the glory of the French people."After Napoleon had been removed in 1815, the Constitution of the Year XII was definitively abolished.
|The Revolution of 1848|
The Second French Empire was begun by Emperor Napoleon III in 1852, but it ended when his army was defeated and he was captured in the Franco Prussian War in 1870. He went into exile and died in 1873.
|Europe in 1871|
|De Gaulle in Paris on 25 August 1944.|
|Bob Le Flambeur, 1956.|
|Civic protest in Algeria in 1960.|
What emerges from this overview is that France has seen upheavals that resulted in adjustments in the the rules guiding the nation, reflecting the challenges and mores of the times. Importantly, as de Gaulle noted the French Republic never ceased to exist, even if it was modified or interrupted. Moreover, as the late Indian astrologer & author V. K. Choudhry stated, the founding of a nation is usually larger in scope than the creation and adoption of a constitution. It therefore makes sense to view modern France to be the modern form of the collective entity that was born in the Revolution resulting in the fall of the monarchy and founding of the Republic. The resulting horoscope matches the tumultuous events and the adaptability of the leaders of the nation to continue and improve its form.
There is an emphasis on "dutifulness and responsibility," but also "diligence, commitment, flexibility and adaptability." Capricorn natives tend to be "traditional, level-headed, cautious, thrifty, conservative, methodical, social, practical, with organising ability, faithful, prudent, protective, dependable and persevering or selfish, rigid and resentful."
Saturn, as 2nd lord of wealth and status and neighbourly relations, is debilitated at 9° 57' Aries and in the most effective point (MEP). This adds an element of pride in the history and monuments of the national life, e.g. the Versailles palace and Louvre museum. It also suggests sluggishness for the national economy, as Saturn is somewhat weak. However, as it is the lord of a sun-like house, it gains some strength on that account. Mars as 4th lord is well placed and strong at 4° Scorpio and 11th house MEP, in aspect to the 2nd house, indicating that iron, industries, the military and sports people add to the status and wealth of the country, e.g. Arc de Triomphe, Musée de l'Armée, and Tour Eiffel at Champ de Mars). Moon as 7th lord of others is debilitated at 13° Scorpio and 11th house. This placements suggests the French apply the ideals and goals of "fraternity, equality and freedom" to the rights of each other, and support democracy in other nations. However, the realisation of these ideals is delayed due to the weakness of the Moon. By comparison, the USA has Moon as 1st lord exalted and strong in Taurus and 11th house, giving the nation a strong sense of its own ideals and goals, which were soon realised after the nations founding in 1781. The placement of Saturn ties the status and wealth of the nation to the land and natural resource. However, these indications are nonetheless sensitive to losses, more so as Saturn is aspected by Jupiter, as 12th lord of losses and foreign entanglements, at 11°49' Libra and 10th house. Several times, foreign powers have imposed losses on France, first at Waterloo in June 1815, after the Franco-Prussian war in 1871, and then again in 1940 when the German army rolled over the French defenses, with Hitler riding as conqueror through Paris on 23 June of that year. The placement of Jupiter as 12th lord can also bring disruptions to public life, government, legislature and foreign trade. The ongoing protests of the gilet jaunes, are a case in point. Venus as 10th lord is well placed but debilitated at 20° Virgo and 9th house. It's dispositor, 9th lord Mercury is placed at 30° Leo and 8th house, further reducing the fortune, but as Mercury is also a sun-like planet, it gains some strength from that. France would thus also tend to receive some easy gains from this placement. However, both Venus and Mercury are sufficiently weak to be able to defend their indications when strained by transit afflictions. This is more so as both Rahu at 3° Virgo and 8th lord Sun at 8° Virgo afflict the 9th house MEP. There is corruption seen in the judicial system, morality, religion, diplomats, foreign missions, progress and development, involving also setbacks for the fortune of the country. In fact, the political instability seen in French national life since 1792, is linked to this dual affliction. Ketu is also in Pisces and 3rd house MEP, which can bring sudden setbacks, involving isolation or separation, for the leadership, communication, transportation, authors, philosophers and literary people.
REIGN OF TERROR
|Napoleon abdicates on 11 April 1814|
The Moon major period had just begun. Transit stationary Rahu was exactly conjunct 8th lord Sun, suggesting upheaval for the government.
MAY 1968 PROTESTS
The Moon major period was operating. Transit 12th lord Jupiter was in 8th house MEP, in aspect to the 4th house of communal harmony. Transit 2nd lord Saturn was conjunct transit stationary Rahu at 25° Pisces and 3rd house of action and words.
|The Yellow Vest protests of 2018.|