Sunday, March 28, 2010


The USA has endured pronounced communal disharmony in early 2010. The catalyst is the debate over reform of the US health care system. In the lead up to the passage of the historic legislation, a significant depth of distrust in the respective political factions was revealed in terms of vitriol in the public discourse.[1] This is in line with the prediction for the USA in early 2010 based on the SAMVA USA chart. The timing of the passage of the legislation is also remarkably consistent with the transit influences in the chart.

The debate
The socio-political developments in the USA in early 2010 have been nothing short of breathtaking.[2] A major overhaul of the health care system, inspired by President Obama's Democratic vision and a political majority in the US Congress, has been enacted. This bill was on the agenda of the Obama administration since mid 2009. In recent months, however, its passage was sidelined by the President's decision to engage the Republican opposition in a debate over the merits of such reform. The hope was that it would facilitate a compromise and, importantly, bring needed reforms to ensure health care coverage for a significant share of the US population, or over 30 million Americans, who up to this time were without such coverage.[3] The immediate effect of the debate was not to facilitate a compromise, however, but to draw out the anger of those who believe advances in social protection and the associated income redistribution is inherently wrong, even un-American. This polarization has led to the creation of a popular movement, the Tea Party, [4] and a political upset in the state of Massachusetts, which has been a stronghold of Democrats for over half a century, with the election of Republican Scott Brown as Senator in a special election in January to fill the seat of Edward Kennedy. The opponents maintain that the reforms run counter to the individual freedoms and responsibility enshrined in the US Constitution. Meanwhile, the Democratic majority hold that it is unconscionable to allow a large segment of society to go without proper health care, especially for a wealthy country like the USA.

In the article Predictions for the USA in 2010 (December 30, 2009) the following dynamic was foreseen

Due to adverse transit influences, strains are expected in the housing market and for domestic peace at the beginning of the year.

Certainly, this prediction, based on the Systems' Approach, has been realised. It was further explained that

Venus is badly placed in the 6th house, which rules financial stability, enmity and health issues. This means that the indications ruled by Venus tend to be associated with conflict or debts.
In addition to the timing, the exact nature of the events was thus accurately predicted.

Astrology of early 2010
The transits in the SAMVA USA chart are quite clear on the evolution of this tension. As transit Rahu came into exact conjunction of natal Venus, as 4th lord of communal harmony, at 23° 50' Sagittarius and the 6th house, the tension peaked with the House of Representatives voting for the bill 219 for and 212 against on March 21. The bill was then signed into law just before noon time on March 23. This timing is no accident but an expression of the authentic chart. The fact that transit Sun, general indicator of the leader, the President, had moved past the exact aspect of transit Saturn, as 8th lord of obstacles and endings, meant he has surmounted the challenge. At the same time, it was a time of defeat for the opposition.

Looking forward, we can first note that the tension has not immediately died down. Transit Rahu lingered over this exact conjunction for the remainder of the week and will in coming weeks be near enough to Venus to bother its indications. As such, the communal harmony, which was predicted to suffer a setback based on astrological factors, is only gradually seen to be reduced as the aspect clears in April. At the same time, the energy of the opposition is likely to persist, with transit Jupiter as 6th lord of opposition, being under the transit aspect of Ketu, the lord of sudden violent events until April. There is also some possibility of a violent backlash in relation to the Jupiter-Saturn opposition that takes place this summer. Let's hope nothing bad happens, but already threats have been made against some Democratic legislators seen to be instrumental in the passage of the bill.[5]

[1] "Quarter of Republicans think Barack Obama is 'the Antichrist' "
Los Angeles - 7:00AM GMT - 25 Mar 2010
[2] Frank Rich, "The Rage Is Not About Health Care", New York Times, March 27, 2010.
[3]Wikipedia: Health care reform debate in the United States
[4] "Palin to tea party rally: Don't sit down, shut up," - Nevada (AP) - Mar 27, 7:52 PM
[5] FBI investigating threats against Democrats after health care vote
March 24, 2010 - 4:19 PM

Saturday, March 20, 2010

Life and death of Malcolm X

One of the most famous civil rights leaders of the 1960s was Malcolm X. He was of African American descent and became an outspoken and controversial Muslim leader in the fight for black civil rights. Fallout with his mentor in March 1964 resulted in his religious conversion and the forming of a new church. In February 1965, he was assassinated while giving a speech. Men belonging to his former congregation were arrested, charged and convicted of his murder. The astrology of the times and this tragic event are examined in terms of the SAMVA USA chart.

Synopsis of his life
Malcolm X, was born in Omaha, Nebraska on May 19, 1925.[1] His given name was Malcolm Little. He died from gunshot wounds in New York City on February 21, 1965. He was also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, an African-American Muslim minister, public speaker, and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. His detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, anti-Semitism, and violence. He has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

By the time Malcolm X was thirteen, his father had died and his mother had been committed to a mental hospital. His childhood, including his father's lessons concerning black pride and self-reliance and his own experiences concerning race, played a significant role in Malcolm X's adult life. After living in a series of foster homes, Malcolm X became involved in hustling and other criminal activities in Boston and New York. In 1946, Malcolm X was sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.

While in prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam. After his parole in 1952, he became one of the Nation's leaders and chief spokesmen. For nearly a dozen years, he was the public face of the Nation of Islam. Tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad, head of the Nation of Islam, led to Malcolm X's departure from the organization in March 1964.

After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X became a Sunni Muslim and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, after which he disavowed racism. He traveled extensively throughout Africa and the Middle East. He founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization, and the secular, Black Nationalist Organization of Afro-American Unity. Less than a year after he left the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X was assassinated while giving a speech in New York.[2] He had been threatened in his home prior to that. It is believed the assailants are members of the Black Muslim faith, which Malcolm had recently abandoned in favor of orthodox Islam.[3]

While Reverend Martin Luther King is perceived as the towering leader of the black equal rights movement, Malcolm X has a very special place in it. In his famous “I have a dream” speech on August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King became an icon of his people's peaceful urge to be accepted and a major figure of the idealism that is part of the collective conciousness of Americans. By comparison, Malcolm X belonged to those who were impatient and angry towards whites for centuries of abuses, going so far as to reject their faith and refuse their company. He went so far as calling those who participated in the white man's system as "house niggers," a reference to their slave origins in the USA. There was also an unrelated Black Panther movement in the 1960s adopting a revolutionary stance, emphasising also the assertion of black pride. In his last year of life, Malcolm X disavowed racism in any of its forms and sought peaceful change. In doing so, he increasingly aligned himself with the idealistic sentiments of the American people as a whole, earlier expressed by Martin Luther King, beginning to transcend the righteous anger associated with the injustices. Nevertheless, he continued to seek international condemnation of US practices in this regard. Indeed, the maltreatment of minorities, socio-economic injustices and the violence of daily life are a major blight on the American experience. This feature will likely always manifest in one form or another in the national life. At the same time, the strong sense of idealism that is at the heart of a ceaseless struggle to overcome or transcend social injustices and the associated violence has made the USA frequently a tragic yet one of the most fascinating and inspiring countries in the world.

Astrology of Saturn period
The 1960s were a decade of social upheaval, where the Vietnam War, civil rights and the idealism of the young collided. The Saturn major period (April 1953- April 1972) was operating. Saturn rules the common people. In the SAMVA USA chart, Saturn is 8th lord and thus rules obstacles and endings, beliefs of the people, bureaucratic obstructions or delays and easy gains. As Saturn is placed in the 5th house, the energy is felt more acutely by young people, in the creative sphere and in universities. During the 1950s, the Beat Generation launched an examination of the vacuousness of daily middle-class life with its seemingly robotic emphasis on only working to acquire a home, appliances, a car, while offering tacit support to a "Military-Industrial Complex" engaged in a potentially deadly Cold War with the Soviet Union and China. This intellectual development of the young evolved into the Hippy movement in the 1960s and the so-called summer of love. Natally, Saturn also aspects the Sun as 2nd lord of wealth and status and Saturn is a general indicator of the leader of the country, the President. A lot of the frustration was directed at the sitting Presidents, especially Lyndon B. Johnson, who opted out of running for a second term in 1968. His successor, Richard M. Nixon, was also strained by the demands of young people and discontent with the war. As Saturn is 8th lord of the transcendent, psychedelic drugs became popular and they eventually zapped the idealism and vibrancy of the youth movement. As regards, the civil rights struggle, it is linked to the placement of Ketu, which rules those separated or isolated in life, on the most effective point of the 4th house in the chart, ruling communal harmony. Ketu also aspects the 8th house of obstacles and death, ruled by Saturn. Ketu's own dispositor, Venus, is placed in the 6th house of the chart, suggesting conflict over those things that separate people within the nation. Since its founding, blacks and other minorities have been subject to being marginalized and made to feel separate from the rest of society. During the Saturn period of social upheaval, young people began to adopt a more aggressive stance towards this problem. Malcolm X, who was in his thirties during this time, became one of the most famous and respected spokesmen of the plight of his people, although many also disagreed with his approach.

On February 21, 1965, in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, Malcolm X began to speak to a meeting of the Organization of Afro-American Unity when a disturbance broke out in the crowd of 400. A man yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!" As Malcolm X and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance, a man rushed forward and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun. Two other men charged the stage and fired handguns, hitting him 16 times. Angry onlookers caught and beat one of the assassins as the others fled the ballroom. Malcolm X was pronounced dead at 3:30 p.m., shortly after he arrived at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Three men belonging to the Nation of Islam were arrested and imprisoned for the murder. Malcolm X left a wife and four young children and millions of Americans stricken with grief.

Astrology of the event
On the day of his assassination, the Saturn-Moon period was in operation. Transit Moon was at 23° Libra and 4th house in opposition to transit 6th lord Jupiter at 25° Aries and 10th house. The strong Moon representing the self of the American people and sub-period lord at this time was focused on the communal harmony. Under the influence of the lord of conflict, there was discord in the air. Transit Jupiter was also aspecting natal 4th lord Venus at 24° Sagittarius and 6th house, with a sense of conflict disturbing the peace in the community. Transit Ketu was exactly conjunct natal Saturn at 27° Scorpio and 5th house. A sudden violent event brought death. Transit Rahu at 27° Taurus and 11th house was aspecting natal 2nd lord Sun at 24° Capricorn and 7th house as well as transit 4th lord Venus at 27° Capricorn, further undermining the communal harmony. Transit Saturn was in its own sign Aquarius and 8th house, but under the aspect of natal Ketu, bringing a sudden and violent event causing a separation. Saturn was also conjunct transit Sun diminishing the status of the USA due to such an event taking place. Also in the 8th house was 3rd lord Mercury linked to an action causing death.

Malcolm X possibly had Sagittarius as a rising sign.[4]

[1] Malcolm X - Wikipedia
[2] Time of death and a photo of deceased Malcolm X
[3] The assailants
[4] Malcolm X birth information

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

Inviolability of the Union

The SAMVA USA chart is based on the event when the perpetual Union of the American States was formed.

It is clear that the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union established by law the United States of America as a national entity. The Union that the founders, including George Washington, had created was put to the test in the Civil War and survived due to a determined effort under Abraham Lincoln's leadership.[1] Furthermore, following the war, it was adjudicated that under American constitutional law, this concept means that states are not permitted to withdraw from the Union.

When the U. S. Constitution replaced the Articles, nothing in it specifically stated that the Union is perpetual. Even after the Civil War, which had been fought by the North to confirm the inviolability of the Union, some still questioned whether any such inviolability survived after the Constitution replaced the Articles. That issue was settled in the 1869 United States Supreme Court case Texas v. White. In that case, the court determined that the drafters intended the perpetuity of the Union to survive:

By [the Articles of Confederation], the Union was solemnly declared to "be perpetual." And when these Articles were found to be inadequate to the exigencies of the country, the Constitution was ordained "to form a more perfect Union." It is difficult to convey the idea of indissoluble unity more clearly than by these words. What can be indissoluble if a perpetual Union, made more perfect, is not? [2]

In other words, the formation of the perpetual Union, by defining the ties which make the United States of America a nation, constitutes its true founding event.

[1] Perpetual Union
[2] Texas v. White, 74 U. S. 700 (1868)

Sunday, March 7, 2010

Rise of U.S. Imperial Power

The emergence of the USA as a truly imperial power took place at the close of the 19th century. This 1898 political cartoon in the Philadelphia Press depicts the extension of the United States dominion as "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip".

The exertion of US military power around the globe coincided with the first full major period of the Sun (April 19, 1896-to April 19, 1902) in the SAMVA USA chart (Perpetual Union). The Sun is strong and powerfully placed in the chart as 2nd lord of wealth and status on the most effective point of the 7th house ruling foreign policy. This is important, as the second major period of the Sun will commence in 2016, suggesting the USA will then assert its even greater influence in the world. A reading of history based on the earlier Sun period in the SAMVA USA chart is revealing in this regard. It is possible a new leadership in the US some years hence may even seek to expand into space to solve the economic and social problems at home.

Origins of the expansion
The founders of the USA planted the seeds of national greatness that has been the hallmark of the USA ever since.

"In his last years in office, an embattled President George Washington yearned for a time when this nation will possess the strength of a Giant and there will be none who can make us afraid."[1]

Scholars have debated why the U.S. became expansionist at the close of the 19th century. There are likely many reasons. By the late 19th century the U.S. had completed its "Westward expansion." The country had also been suffering from demand side problems in the economy since the Panic of 1873. This period has been termed "The Long Depression". The spell was not really broken until 1896, when monetary expansion surged ahead, helped by the "Klondike Gold Rush" in the latter half of the 1890s. In the famous work of Milton Friedman and Anna J. Schwarts on the monetary history of the United States, the following statement is fascinating in this regard

"The final years of the [19th] century saw a dramatic reversal of economic conditions. The stock of money had fluctuated about roughly a constant level from 1892 to 1897, in June 1896 it was lower than in June 1892, in June 1897 about the same as in June 1892. From then on it rebounded upward at an extraordinary 1902 - a cumulative increase of 80 per cent in five years."

This coincides exactly with the six year run of the Sun major period in the SAMVA USA chart from 1896 to 1902. It is not a coincidence that such a mighty rebound occurred in monetary and economic conditions, which are a key indication of the Sun, during its major period.

In any event, some scholars suggest the expansion of US power around the globe was considered a way to get the U.S. economy out of its sluggishness and problems. Despite enormous economic development following the Civil War (1861-1865), when the US built up its industrial infrastructure and then its military strength, grave social problems had emerged giving rise to social conflict over festering inequality and social injustices. As the new century beckoned - and the Sun period began - these clouds began to lift. In the earlier article From Gilded Age to Progressive Era, this socio-economic and political shift has been explained. There were also external pressures in the 1890s that accelerated U.S. efforts to expand its naval capabilities, especially the rise of colonial powers in Europe. Importantly, such efforts went into high gear following the landslide election in 1896 of William McKinley as U.S. President, at the onset of the Sun major period. In the 1900 election, McKinley emphasised the benign nature of the expansion: "The American flag has not been planted in foreign soil to acquire more territory but for humanity's sake."

"United States expansionism had its roots in domestic concerns and economic conditions, as in other newly industrializing nations where government sought to accelerate internal development. Advocates of empires also drew upon a tradition of westward expansion over the course of the previous century. Economic depression led some U.S. businessmen and politicians from the mid-1880s to come to the same conclusion as their European counterparts — that industry and capital had exceeded the capacity of existing markets and needed new outlets. The "closing of the Frontier" identified by the 1890 Census report and publicized by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in his 1893 paper The Significance of the Frontier in American History, contributed to fears of constrained natural resource. Like the Long Depression in Europe, the main features of the U.S. depression included deflation, rural decline, and unemployment, which aggravated the bitter social protests of the "Gilded Age" — the Populist movement, the free-silver crusade, and violent labor disputes such as the Pullman and Homestead strikes. The Panic of 1893 contributed to the growing mood for expansionism. Influential politicians such as Henry Cabot Lodge, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt advocated a more aggressive foreign policy to pull the United States out of the depression." [3]

Parallels to our own time
As in the latter decades of the 19th century, the US has been suffering from significant social and economic problems during the recent periods of Ketu (1989-1996) and Venus (1996-2016). A predicted U.S. resurgence will likely take place in the coming Sun major period (2016-2022). This could involve a re-exertion of U.S. military power in the world or a significant push to expand the frontier of space.

Economist & Author Ravi Batra has written a fascinating book, The Golden New Age, predicting major political reforms in coming years to resolve the social malaise of inequalities and economic problems. He mentions the election year 2016, which coincides with the beginning of the forthcoming Sun period, as potentially important in this regard.[4] He also suggests a historic shift in societal values from acquisitive to warrior like. In this regard we can think about the booming genre of action movies with super charged heros and the growing respect for people in uniform. Should they be considered a harbinger of such a social transformation? If history is anything to go by, Batra may well prove right, although the extent or timing of such socio-political changes is uncertain.

[1] Herring, George, C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower - U.S. Foreign Relations since 1776. Oxford University Press, New York.
[2] Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwarts (1963). A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
[3] New Imperialism
[4] Batra, Ravi (2007). The New Golden Age - The Coming Revolution against Political Corruption and Economic Chaos. Palgrave MacMillan, New York.

Friday, March 5, 2010

Currency strength

A natal horoscope for a country can be read to reveal its future trends and events. It can also be read in comparison with the horoscope of another nation to reveal the relative currency strength of the two countries, the exchange rate.

In this article, the inherent strength of the UK Pound Sterling and the US dollar is read from the respective national charts. The strength of the currency indications in the respective horoscopes is then compared and contrasted, the long term trend noted and a prediction made.

Exchange rates
To many, the concept of an exchange rate is not so easy to understand. This is understandable as it tends to become a complicated matter in daily usage. However, some may find the following explanation helpful, while others may skip it and proceed to the next section. The exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another. In other words, it tells us how many units of a national currency are required in exchange for one unit of another currency. If a national currency is strong, it means the people of that country don't have to give up as much of it to obtain other currencies. The opposite would be the case if the national currency is weak. With a strong currency one obtains goods abroad at lower prices. However, the downside is that foreigners do not find the prices of our goods as favourable to buy. In other words, the pricier a currency is, the less well the country would tend to do in balancing its foreign trade, as it would tend to import more than it exports. Fortunately, price is not the only consideration as people also look to their income to decide if they want to spend to obtain a foreign good or service. Over a long time, the exchange rates may show clear trends, either up or down, depending on if one country is more dynamic than another or has some critical advantages influencing money flows. Another thing that may add to the confusion of understanding exchange rates is that their values change quite a bit over time. This is because currencies are traded continuously and the value depends on how many people want to either sell or buy the currencies at any given time and for how much. Moreover, people and companies trade currencies for different reasons. Many do so because they intend to buy foreign goods while others do so because they are aiming to reduce the risk of their international commercial dealings or speculating in the hope of earning a profit. Invariably, the gain of one person is another's loss. Interestingly, the flow in and out of currencies any given day is very large and most of it is for financial reasons and only a fraction to finance merchandise trade. In this regard, we can note that investors may place their money in a foreign country if they have confidence that the investment will return a profit. Countries with stronger currencies tend to benefit by sustained foreign inflows of capital (large sums of money) and tend to pay lower interest rates on such monies (loans or investments) than countries with less currency strength. To this we may add that when participants on global financial markets become worried about their investments, major moves can take place, with capital rushing out of one country and into another, with currency values then in wild swings. Normally, investors flee out of weaker currencies and into safe-haven currencies (noted for their strength or resilience) during difficult times. This quality may also depend on the size of the currency area and its liqudity, the ease with which one can sell a currency without affecting its price on the market.

Astrology of exchange rates
Astrologer & author V. K. Choudhry gave the following definition of currency strength on the SAMVA list on September 26, 2000, prompted by my question:

“It is the power of the state which is shown through the strength of the currency. The authority is first vested in the Sun and then in the Moon. The good financial strength of the nation/wealth is seen through the second house and the regular flow of income is seen through the eleventh house. Taken all these four together they show the real strength of the currency of a particular country.”

Currency strength of a nation thus depends on the integrity of and trust in a state (Sun), the government and the policies it may implement (Moon) as well as the income and wealth of the country. The power of the state may be linked to the size and endowments of the state and its track record in defending its interests in the past. The policies may either help or hinder the wealth generating potential of the economy, including the operation of markets. Markets may be given an excessively free rein or be constrained to the point that they do not yield the optimal outcome. The laws of the country set the rules of the game that either help to resolve ambiguities of what is fair for investors and consumers or they may be unclear and/or biased, such that they favour either seller or buyer at the expense of the other. It is a complex matter. That said, we can look to the natal potential of a horoscope to see the bottom line, in terms of the expected long term trend of currency strength. Over shorter time spans, the astrological analysis of the external value of a currency are linked to the changes between the major or sub-periods of the planets and significant events indicated by transits, which bring either advances or setbacks.

Horoscope of the UK
The horoscope of the United Kingdom has 16° Virgo rising with 2nd lord Venus well placed at 25° 27' Capricorn and the 5th house under. Venus is well placed in the 4th house of the Navamsa (D-IX) chart, supporting the strength of Venus in the natal (Rasi or D-I) chart. Venus is also well placed in the sign Leo in the Hora (D-II) chart. A planet in the sign Leo in the Hora chart becomes affluent. Venus is thus in good strength in the chart. It is, however, receiving an aspect from functional malefic Ketu at 22° 59' Virgo and 1st house, which could bring sudden adverse developments, but as the aspect has an orb of 2° 28' it is not strongly felt. In other words, the wealth of the British tends to be linked to their creativity and speculation. Not surprisingly, London is one of the major finance capitals of the world. The Moon becomes 11th lord of income and it is well placed at 28° 20' Gemini and the 10th house. The income is therefore strongly linked to foreign trade and the laws, but also the government, as Moon is the general indicator of the cabinet. As such, the Moon becomes a dual indicator of currency strength. In Navamsa chart, Moon is in 2nd house and in Hora chart it is in Cancer, its own sign. As the Moon is in old age in the Rasi chart, however, its overall strength is considerably reduced. Moreover, 12th lord Sun aspects the 10th house, indicating foreign developments and losses reduce the currency strength. The Ekadasmsa (D-XI) chart of income also comes with problems, including Moon as 5th lord of speculation conjunct Saturn as 12th lord of losses in the 5th house. This may further harm the Moon's general indications in the Rasi chart. The final indicator of currency strength, the Sun, at 19° 00' Sagittarius, is in the most effective point (MEP) of the 4th house. As such, the Sun also aspects its own house of placement, reducing its own strength. It is however well placed in the 5th house of Navamsa chart but in Cancer in the Hora chart. The authority of the state is not as helpful as it could be. Lastly, the planet Mars, as 8th lord of obstacles and endings, is at 20° 40' Aries and 8th house, where it is aspecting both the 11th house of income and 2nd house of wealth, as well as the 3rd house of enterprise, this is unhelpful to currency strength. The orb however is wide, reducing the significance. Nevertheless, as the UK chart is running the Mars major period from 2006-2012, this would not be seen to be helpful to the value of the pound during that period, especially during the Saturn sub-period from May 2008 to June 2009, when the pound suffered a sharp drop. Overall, we get a mixed picture with the 2nd lord clearly the most helpful to currency strength whereas the Moon and Sun, while well placed, have their strength compromised.

Horoscope of the USA
In the SAMVA USA chart the indications of currency strength are in a class by themselves. The Sun becomes both 2nd lord and general indicator of currency strength in this chart. It is strong at 23° 44' Capricorn and in the MEP of the 7th house, thus also favourably aspecting the 1st house of self. While the Sun is placed in the sign Leo and 8th house of the Navamsa chart where it is conjunct 12th lord Jupiter, which reduces the strength at bit, it is in the sign Leo of the Hora chart, which boosts the strength. The 8th lord Saturn at 26° 46' Scorpio and 5th house aspects the Sun. However, the aspect is over 3° orb and the Sun is not influenced to a significant extent. Overall, the wealth generating potential and authority of the state is significantly good and involves foreign policy (7th house) and contributes to a healthy self-image (1st house). As Taurus, a non-Moolatrikona sign, is in the 11th house there is no 11th lord and this house is not afflicted, suggesting income would not be a major problem for the USA. Moreover, the Ekadasamsa (D-XI) chart of income is generally ok, although not perfect. Importantly, the other general indicator of currency strength, the Moon as 1st lord, is exalted at 7° 19' Taurus and well placed in the 11th house. This suggests that economic policies are geared to being income generating. The Moon is well placed in the 3rd house of initiative of the Navamsa chart, conjunct Saturn as 2nd lord of wealth and FM Ketu of sudden setbacks. American's tend to be entrepreneurial and wealth seeking, but the history shows volatility in this regard. In the Hora chart the Moon is placed in the sign Cancer. Moreover, in the Rasi chart, it receives two aspects, one from 6th lord Jupiter at 4° 25' Scorpio and 5th house and 10th lord Mars at 10° 07' Scorpio. The former aspect is not close enough to have a material negative effect and the influence of Mars is only helpful. The USA has been running the inauspicious period of Venus since 1996. This period has been associated with a bubble inflating and then bursting in the US housing market, followed by a banking crisis. An overall assessment is of great currency strength, consistent with the US dollar being a safe-haven currency in the world.

Long term exchange rate
We can now compare and contrast the evolution of the long term value of the UK Pound Sterling and the US dollar in terms of an analysis of their respective horoscopes. The accompanying chart shows the long term trend. The value of the UK Pound has fallen in a rather steady manner for almost one century with respect to the US dollar. This is not surprising as the USA has been in ascendancy in this period while the Sun has set on the British empire. After World War II, the international order of the British Empire, referred to as the Pax Brittannica, was replaced by the USA assuming the mantle in what became known as the Pax Americana.
Recent and future developments
Following the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in the early 1970s, the dollar has continued to gain on the Pound. While there has been volatility, reflecting the period and transit influences in both charts, the trend line has clearly been lower, such that those buying a pound with dollars now pay less than they did some forty years ago. Moreover, while there have been concerns about the long term viability of the dollar, given the debt of the US government and during the recent adverse planetary periods, it is expected that when the Sun major period rolls around in 2016, the integrity of the US dollar will be boosted. In the interim period, given the even more adverse major period of Mars in the UK horoscope until 2012, the UK pound may experience a further trend decline relative to the US dollar.