Monday, October 5, 2009

Birth of modern China

Most people look to either September 21, 1949 or October 1, 1949 when the People's Republic of China (PRC) was officially founded as having given birth to modern China. As an astrological examination of these dates has not provided a convincing match for major significant events in China's modern history, further research into the history of modern China was undertaken. An event has now been identified that may represent the actual birth of modern China. This event is the founding by Mao Zedong and his cadre in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) of the Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR) in Ruijin, Jiangxi province, on November 7, 1931. A 23° Capricorn rising chart has tentatively been rectified for this day, based on Ruijin as the capital and with the proclamation having been given at 13.00 hrs. This chart should be considered work in progress.

The Two China period
The period from 1931 to 1937 is known in Chinese history as the 'Two China' period. At that time, most of China was part of the Republic of China (ROC), which was led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang (KMT) forces. The CSR was supported by the Soviet Union, while the ROC was supported by the Western powers.

Red Emperor
The single or red thread from the creation of the CSR and its transition into the PRC is Mao himself and the struggle of the CCP, which he led, for rule over China. In this regard it is important to note that China has had a continuos history of dynasties of emperors from around 1600 BCE. The period stetches over almost 4 millennia of recorded history. During this time, the emperors have been the 'central organising principle' of the nation. Mao assumed this role in modern Chinese life and thereby filled the vacum in Chinese society created by the Revolution of 1911. However, he did so in the name of a new ideology, communism as defined by him. As such, he founded a new dynasty in the name of the CCP and not his direct descendants. In October 1934, after the lands controlled by the CSR had been encircled and overrun by the KMT, Mao and his cadre undertook the famous Long March to establish a new base and preserve their fighting capabilities. Things took a different turn in 1937, with the onset of the Sino-Japanese war, which lasted until Japans' surrender in World War II, in 1945. As a gesture of peace with the KMT, in order for the CCP to join in the fight against Japan, the CSR was officially abandoned. However, Mao was ingenious in meeting the demands of the KMT. In its resolution on February 21, 1937, the KMT demanded the "Dissolution of the so-called "Chinese Soviet Republic." The CCP, which saw it essential to safeguard its future by making compromises with the KMT, declared on September 22, 1937: "This party abolishes the present Soviet government... " [1] In other words, the present government was abolished but not the new nation. As soon as it was convenient to do so, Mao's efforts to unite China under his rule continued. As Japan's fortunes in WW II began to wane, Mao turned his undivided attention to conquering the KMT. Those efforts succeeded in 1949 when the KMT fled to Taiwan, an island that had earlier been taken over by Japan. The ROC has continued there, but is increasingly isolated given the might of the Communist regime on mainland China. Due to his increasing alienation from the Soviet communist model, Mao created a Peoples Republic in 1949. However, the earlier proclamation of a Soviet Republic had brought the new nation into existence, and it continued.

History of China
The history of humanity in what is now China is traced back into the ancient mists of time. The history of China as a national entity goes back to the Shang Dynasty, which ruled from around 1600 BCE. The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, however, developed later, in the feudal Zhou Dynasty, from around 1000 BCE to around 300 BCE. The Zhou Dynasty broke apart into individual city states, creating the Warring States period. However, in 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. The dynasties of China developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor to directly control the vast territories. The dynasties alternated between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign Asian peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population.

Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR)
The Chinese Soviet Republic was a state established in November 1931 by the future Communist Party of China leader Mao Zedong, legendary general Zhu De and others. Mao Zedong was CSR State Chair and Prime Minister - at once the Head of the State and of its Government. It was from this "small state within a state" that he gained the experience in mobile warfare and peasant organization that he later used to accomplish the Communist conquest of China in the late 1940s. The CSR was destroyed by the KMT's National Revolutionary Army in a series of Encirclement Campaigns eventually designed by the German general Hans von Seeckt.

On November 7, 1931, the anniversary of the 1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution, with the help of the Soviet Union, a National Soviet People's Delegates Conference took place in Ruijin , Jiangxi province, which was selected as the national capital. " Chinese Soviet Republic " was born, even though the majority of China was still under the control of the nationalist Government of the Republic of China. On that day, they had an open ceremony for the new country, and Mao Zedong and other Communists attended the military parade. Because it had its own bank, printed its own money, collected tax through its own tax bureau, therefore, it is considered as the beginning of Two Chinas.

The Chinese Soviet Republic continued to exist formally after the fall of the Jiangxi soviet, as the communists still controlled some areas like the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet. [2]

“It was in the eastern part of that province that on 7 November 1931, the anniversary of the October Revolution, the consolidation and extension of the main base led to the procalamation of a Chinese Republic of Soviets, with Mao presiding over the Council of People’s Commissars. Until its final triumph in 1949, Chinese Communism was to go thorugh many incarnation and terrible setbacks, but the main model was establisehd here: concentrating the energy of the revolution on the construction of a state, and focusing the efforts of that state, which was to be warlike by nature, on forming a strong army to crush the enemoy, which was the central government of Nanjing, presided over by Chinag Kai-shek.” [3]

In November 1931, the First All-China Soviet Congress was convened in Ruijin , Jiangxi and it founded the Chinese Soviet Republic as a national regime and established separate state and military structures to operate at the national level. While direct control over the military was taken away from Mao Zedong, he was appointed to the new post of Chair of the Soviet government. Xiang Ying and Zhang Guotao were appointed as his deputies. Zhu De was appointed chair of the newly established Central Revolutionary Military Commission, with Peng Dehuai and Wang Jiaxiang as his deputies. The Congress also adopted a Constitution for the Republic that designated it as a "democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry." However, there was no pretence that the Soviet was anything other than a communist one-party dictatorship. In the remote rural area there were no industrial workers, the proletariat consisted almost entirely of village artisans, handicraftsmen, and farm laborers. This notwithstadning, the Constitution acknowledged that "only the proletariat can lead the broad masses to socialism," and thus they were to have extra representation in the Soviet. [4]

Kuomintang of China
The Kuomintang of China, translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party of the ROC, commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s…The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the ROC ruled much of China from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after defeat by the CCP during the Chinese Civil War. [5]

Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was fought between the KMT (or Chinese Nationalist Party) and the CCP. The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. The war represented an ideological split between the Western-supported Nationalist KMT and the Soviet-supported Communist CCP. In communist historiography the war was also known as the "War of Liberation." The civil war carried on intermittently until the Second Sino-Japanese War interrupted it, resulting in the two parties forming a Second United Front. The Japanese assault and occupation of Eastern China was an opportunistic attack made possible by China 's internal turmoil. Japan 's campaign was defeated in 1945, marking the end of World War II, and China 's full-scale civil war resumed in 1946. After a further four years, 1950 saw a cessation of major hostilities—with the newly founded People's Republic of China controlling mainland China (including Hainan Island), and the Republic of China's jurisdiction being restricted to Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and several outlying Fujianese islands. To this day, since no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, there is controversy as to whether the Civil War has legally ended. Today, the two sides of the Taiwan strait have close economic ties. [6]

Second Sino-Japanese war
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany (until 1938) and the Soviet Union (1937-1940). After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front in the Pacific Theatre. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the twentieth century. Although the two countries had fought intermittently since 1931, full-scale war started in earnest in 1937 and ended only with the surrender of Japan in 1945. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aiming to dominate China politically and militarily to secure its vast raw material reserves and other resources. At the same time, the rising tide of Chinese nationalism and notions of self determination stoked the coals of war. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements in so-called "incidents". Yet the two sides, for a variety of reasons, refrained from fighting a total war. [7]

CCP and KMT join to fight Japan
The Second United Front was the alliance between the KMT and CCP during the Second Sino-Japanese War or World War II, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946…It was a moment rarely seen during wars- where both sides join together to face a greater threat…The alliance that was created with the Communists was in name only and the Communists hardly ever engaged the Japanese in conventional battles but proved efficient in guerrilla warfare. The level of actual co-operation and co-ordination between the CCP and KMT during World War II was minimal. In the midst of the Second United Front, the Communists and the Kuomintang were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e. those areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by puppet governments). The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces. In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CCP’s New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces . Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied, but they were ambushed by Nationalist troops and soundly defeated in January 1941. This clash, which would be known as the New Fourth Army Incident, weakened the CCP position in Central China and effectively ended any substantive co-operation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable Civil War. Within the Japanese occupied provinces the KMT and CCP forces carried on warfare with each other, with the Communists eventually destroying or absorbing the KMT forces or driving them into the puppet forces of the Japanese. By the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Communists were in control of nearly all of the areas of North China not controlled by Japan or its puppet forces. [8]

Quasi-dissolution of the CSR
In any event, when the KMT and CCP joined in the Second Front there was a cessation of the Chinese Civil War, shortly after the outbreak of the Sino-Japan war. As part of the cessation of the Civil War, the KMT, in its resolution on February 21, 1937, demanded the

"Dissolution of the so-called "Chinese Soviet Republic,"

In return, the CCP, which saw it essential to safeguard its future by making compromises with the KMT, declared on September 22, 1937:

"This party abolishes the present Soviet government,... " [1]

Importantly, the CCP it did not abolish the national entity, only the government. This was of course a formal gesture, as the organisation of the military campaign of the CCP continued in the hands of Mao and his generals. Moroever, as this was a temporary truce, to fight a common enemy, which both had reasons to do, hostilities between the CCP and KMT broke out not long afterwards.

People's Republic of China
After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the CCP, led by Mao Zedong, gained control of most of Mainland China . On 1 October 1949, they established the People's Republic of China as a Socialist State headed by a "Democratic Dictatorship" with the CCP as the only legal political party, thus, laying claim as the successor state of the ROC. The central government of the Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek was forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan that it had occupied at the end of World War II, and moved the ROC government there. Major armed hostilities ceased in 1950 but no peace treaty has been signed. An estimated 36 million died during the Great Chinese Famine of 1958–61. [9]

The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the CCP in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the PRC from atop Tiananmen (the gate of heavenly peace). The PRC has for several decades been synonymous with China , but it is only the most recent political entity to govern mainland China , preceded by the ROC and thousands of years of imperial dynasties. [10]

Sino-Soviet split
The Sino–Soviet split was the gradual worsening of ideologic relations between the PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War (1945–91). [11] Their doctrinal divergence owed as much to Chinese and Russian national interest, as with the régimes’ interpretative Marxist ideologies. In particular, Mao did not like the Soviet Union's focus on displacing peasants and forcibly moving them to urban centers for heavy industrial production. His own communist model was based on support from largely peasant population, with an emphasis on establishing light industries in agricultural communities. The ideological differences, as well as border conflicts, led to a public break between Mao Zedong and Nikita Khrushchev, the Premier of the Soviet Union, in the 1960s.

Summation of historical evidence
It is likely that Mao, given his alienation from the Soviet development model led him to create a new image for China, the People's Republic. This act was, however, not the real birth of the nation he created as this had been achieved with the proclamation of the Soviet Republic. In sum, it is held that the creation of this national entity, CSR, in 1931, even if not ruling over the entire country at that time and formally being called the PRC in 1949, represents modern China.

Capricorn ascendant fits well with the 'personality' of the Chinese people. It is a sign owned by Saturn, a planet characterised as being stern and representing old things. Indeed, the country is based on a history stretching back into the hoary mists of time and is based on a phenomenal cultural legacy.

According to Author & Astrologer V.K. Choudhry, the rising sign Capricorn
" a negative, non-human, earthy and semi-fruitful sign. It signifies tact, cheating, lethargy and melancholic nature if its ruler, Saturn, is weak....Capricornians are social as Venus rules their tenth house. They are conservative, selfish and selective in approach. They are secretive, pensive, organised, proud and fastidious. They are vigilant and tactful. They have compromising nature in order to achieve leadership...They long for leadership, political power, practice of law and business. Their major pursuits in life include acquisition of assets, partnerships and social contacts for personal benefits and selfish ends...The significator for the soul, the Sun and significator for morality and generosity, Jupiter, are functional malefics for Capricornians." [12]

The major elements in the natal potential of the chart are as follows:

- 2nd lord Saturn is in the MEP of the 12th house of losses and foreign things. By itself, this is not a good placement for status, wealth or relations with neighboring countries. It is interesting that in its history of the 20th century, China enjoyed preeminent status in marginal countries like communist Albania under Enver Hoxa, the North Korean dynasty of Sun Il Jung and the islamist Republic of Iran.

- 10th lord Venus is conjunct 9th lord Mercury in the 11th house. There is fortune in the international presence and it is rooted in ideals. There is an emphasis on equality, order, centralisation of political power, decentralised progressive economy, foreign trade, etc.. Importantly, this chart shows the importance of foreign trade for China in obtaining revenue. In recent decades, China has acquired a huge trade surplus viz-a-viz the rest of the world.

- There is one problematic affliction of FM Rahu in the 3rd house of initiatives, which closely afflicts 4th lord Mars in the 11th house. This placement would explain the many gigantic earthquakes which have befallen China. It would also explain a tendency to manipulate peoples expression to maintain central power. This tendency would greatly reduce the happiness of the people.

- A debilitated 8th lord Sun is on the MEP of the 10th house, afflicting also the 4th house. There have been frequent large earthquakes, with loss of life and property. The influence on the 4th house is seen in the decade long culturual revolution (1966-1976), which decimated the education system in China. The powerful placement of the Sun, while giving obstacles and endings, also gives China a power status in the world. With the prominent influence of 8th lord on 4th house, there would be the atheistic tendency of the Communists, albeit the placement of 10th lord Venus and 9th lord Mercury find expression in the 11th house of ideals.

- Another grave affliction is that of Ketu being conjunct the 7th lord Moon in the 9th house. This suggests sudden setbacks in foreign policy. Ketu in the 9th house also indicates isolation or uniqueness with respect to the philosophical outlook.

- As 12th lord Jupiter is at the edge of the MEP of the 7th house, there are foreign entanglements, which are not that helpful.

The following significant events are also exmained as the chart must explain all such events in a convincing manner. Should there be a major event identified that does not match the history, this would be reason enough to reconsider the chart.

Significant event 1: The Long March, Ocotber 16, 1934, for two years
Moon-Saturn period. The Moon is natally conjunct Ketu, the planet of isolation. The Saturn sub-period also suggests deprivation and losses, as Saturn is placed in the 12th house. The over 6000 mile journey saw significant loss of life but brought the communists in touch with their future political base, the peasants.

Significant event 2: Tangshan earthquake, 28 July 1976
Jupiter- Moon period was operating. Moon is conjunct Ketu the lord of sudden and explosive events. Transit 8th lord Sun was conjunct 2nd lord Saturn, ruling the masses, resulting in hundreds of thousands of lives lost. Transit 12th lord Jupiter, the sub-period lord, was opposite natal 9th lord Mercury, undermining the divine protection.

Significant event 3: Tinnamen Square protests, 4 June 1989
Saturn-Venus period was operating. Transit 10th lord Venus was in the 6th house of conflict under aspect from Rahu, the lord of crisis, in 2nd house. Transit 8th lord Sun was conjunct 12th lord Jupiter in the 5th house of universities.
The future
Looking forward, we can note that the chart is running the Mercury - Rahu period until December 11, 2011. From December 2009 to February 2010, transit Rahu will be stationary at around 27° Sagittarius in the 12th house. In that degree it will be conjunct natal 2nd lord Saturn at 25° Sagittarius. At that time, the dispositor of Saturn and Rahu, transit 12th lord Jupiter will be placed in Aquarius and the 2nd house. Moreover, transit 2nd lord Saturn at 10° Virgo will be conjunct natal Ketu in the 9th house. This suggests a crisis having to do with China's status, wealth or relations with neighbors. As Jupiter is natally placed in the 7th house, a foreign policy issue is likely. Moreover, as Rahu natally afflicts 4th lord Mars, some problems for the military and police cannot be excluded, especially as transit Mars will be stationary at 24° Cancer, were it is debilitated and conjunct natal Jupiter. A major earthquake is also possible at this time.

[1] The China White Paper: August 1949, United States. Dept. of State, Lyman Van Slyke, pages 48-50.
[2] Chinese Soviet Republic
[3] The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, 1999, Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Adrezej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek and Jean-Louis Margolin, Harvard.,+1931&source=bl&ots=cYtpROHgh5&sig=sASFSuD6IUYCJefmQMJF3zfSffU&hl=is&ei=RcDISv-gJsS24Qa667HHAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=november%201931&f=true
[4] The CSR: A new state; one party dictatorship
[5] The Kumonintang (KMT)
[6] Chinese Civil War
[7] Second Sino-Japanese War
[8] Second United Front
[9] People's Republic of China
[10] People's Republic of China
[11] Sino-Soviet split
[12]Capricorn rising characteristics

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