Thursday, June 20, 2019

A Path to War?

Oil tanker attacks of May 13, 2019.
The signs of war, involving the USA, are ever increasing at this time, as predicted at the end of last year. European and Asian oil tankers in the Strait of Hormuz have in recent months been repeatedly attacked. The US government has presented clear evidence that Iran (or its proxies) orchestrated the attacks. The USA is now ratcheting up pressure on Iran, by effectively threatening war if Iran does not cease threatening its neighbours by funding terrorism in the region and trying to acquire nuclear weapons. On June 20, 2019, Iran shot down a US Navy spy drone, which it claims entered its airspace.  The US refuted the claim, saying the drone was in international airspace. The situation is therefore rapidly becoming more tense. China and Russia have criticised the USA for provoking Iran, while France and Germany, which are more dependent on oil from the Middle East, have urged caution. The UK, like the USA, has reinforced its military assets in the region, while Israel has begun "war games".

Iran has been under ever tighter economic sanctions since May 2018, when President Trump pulled out of the Iran Nuclear Agreement (Joint Comprehensive Plan for Action). Trump said that Iran's long standing efforts to export terror and instability to various countries in the region, involving Hezbollah in Palestine, Hamas in the Gaza strip (Israel) and various terror groups in Syria, Iraq and Yemen, needed to stop. Only then can a durable agreement be signed and upheld, allowing Iran to sell oil on international markets. The Iranians have steadfastly denied the US and Israeli allegations.

Iran's Rev. Guards downed US drone on June 20.
Evidently, Iran's recent acts of war are attempts by the leadership in Tehran to force the USA to call off ever tightening sanctions. The Iranians are fully aware of the vulnerability of oil-dependent countries in Europe and Asia, which is seen in the reluctance of the European's to leave the nuclear agreement. It is also seen in Japanese Prime Minister Abe's trip to Tehran in mid June to seek a resumption of negotiations between the USA and Iran, which Iran flatly refused, saying it was a waste of time to talk to the Americans. Based on huge advances in the extraction of shale oil, the USA has become energy independent and thus has more degrees of freedom in dealing with Iran. Meanwhile, America's allies in Europe and Asia have a bigger stake in how the conflict is resolved. A war that stops oil from reaching Europe and Asia would be a worst case scenario. These countries are therefore trying to persuade the USA to peacefully resolve the situation. The Mullah´s have flesh in the game too. Their popular support in the country has been steadily dwindling as the ever tighter sanctions continue to bite. Public discontent with the regime was on international display in the election uprising of mid 2009, which was accurately predicted on this blog


Astrologically, this situation is reflected in the transit conjunction of Saturn and Ketu at 26°-20° Sagittarius from February to October 2019, which is already being reflected in worldwide events, but more so in countries with national horoscopes that connect with the transit, such as the USA and Iran, but also the EU,  Germany and the UK. 

The difficult transit conjunction of 2019.
This rare stationary and long standing transit conjunction took place at 12° Capricorn during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Interestingly, it was active in the SAMVA USA chart then, as it is now. The transit conjunction, highlights that the authorities and the public do not always know what is going on in the shadowy world of international intrigue, where things can suddenly escalate with horrifying repercussions. In 1962, the two sides were in the end willing to negotiate a solution. This time around it does not look likely and the Iranian's may just as well want to welcome the twelfth Mahdi in a final battle between good and evil.

With the benefit of astrology and an authentic horoscope for the USA, we can say that the transit and period influences today are, if anything, suggestive of a more difficult situation than at that time of the Cuban missile crisis, even if it may not become clear until later this month. On the upside, the SAMVA USA chart is undergoing a more propitious major period now, with Sun as 2nd lord in 7th house MEP, compared to the 1950s and 1960s, with Saturn as 8th lord in the 5th house.


The Soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba
The Cuban MissileCrisis was a 13-day confrontation -- from October 16 to October 28, 1962 -- between the United States and the Soviet Union. The crisis began with the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961, the Soviets began in July 1962 to move troops and missile batteries to Cuba. The Saturn-Venus period was operating.
  •     August 1962: CIA Director John McCone becomes suspicious and writes a memorandum to the President recommending surveillance flights over Cuba.
  •      September 11, 1962: Transit 8L Saturn moved in retrograde motion over natal 3L Mercury at 12° 05‘ Capricorn and 7H. At that time, tr Ketu was at 15° 00‘ Capricorn. The Soviet Union, which were busy building a missile battery in Cuba, publicly warned on this day that a US attack on Cuba or on Soviet ships carrying supplies to the island would mean war.
  •      October 15, 1962: Start of the Crisis in the USA. Transit Ketu became exactly conjunct natal 3L Mercury. Transit 8L Saturn was at 11° 38‘ Capricorn, with an orb of 0° 27‘ from these two planets. On this day, President Kennedy was shown photos proving the presence of Soviet medium range nuclear tipped missiles on Cuba.
  •      October 22, 1962: President Kennedy delivers a nationwide television broadcast to inform the public about the crisis. The public becomes alarmed.
  •      October 25, 1962: Transit Ketu became conjunct tr 8L Saturn at 11° 36‘ Capricorn. The crisis peaks but at the same time begins to be defused with a Security Council meeting at the UN and secret negotiations between Premier Kruischev and President Kennedy.
  •      October 28, 1962: The crisis is considered to have effectively ended on this day.
The strength of 3th lord Mercury is considered to have avoided any major setback to the USA on this day. However, the Soviet-US negotiations resulted in comparable Jupiter medium range nuclear tipped missiles being secretly removed from Turkey within six months. Some viewed this a setback for the USA, but it also paved the way for sharply improved relations with the Soviets ten years later.


Trump is dealing with a well equipped adversary.
The Sun-Saturn period is operating in the SAMVA USA chart between February 2019 and February 2020, with transit 8th lord Saturn becoming conjunct transit Ketu from March until October 2019. Astrologers can never know exactly how the karma seen in a chart will be expressed, in terms of what will happen. However, this transit involves three functional malefic planets in malefic houses, afflicting a sensitive natal planet, which is a recipe for disaster. So far, there have been significant tensions in USA - Chinese commercial relations as well as the fear of a war breaking out between the USA and Iran around oil shipping in the Strait of Hormuz. Domestic terrorism or a natural disaster are also possibilities.
  •      May 10, 2019: USA raises tariffs on $200 billion of goods from China.
  •       May 12, 2019: Two oil tankers attacked, likely by Iran or its proxy, near the Straits of Hormuz.
  •       May 13, 2019: USA places Chinese company, Huawei, on a list banning it from purchasing US companies.
  •       June 1, 2919: China raises tariffs on $60 billion of US goods.
  •       June 3, 2019: Transit Ketu moved over natal 4L Venus at 23° 50‘ Sagittarius and 6th house.
  •       June 4, 2019: Massacre at Virginia Beach, 13 dead and 4 injured.
  •       June 13, 2019: Two more oil tankers attacked in Straits of Hormuz, likely by Iran or its proxy.
  •       June 20, 2019: Iran downs a US Navy spy drone outside/inside its international airspace.
  • .......
  •       June 29, 2019: Transit 8th lord Saturn becomes exactly conjunct natal 4th lord Venus.
  •       July 4, 2019: Transit 8th lord Saturn and transit stationary Ketu become exactly conjunct at 23° 29‘ Sagittarius and 6th house.
  •       July 10, 2019: Transit 2nd lord Sun becomes conjunct transit stationary Rahu at 23° 30' Gemini and 12th house most effective point (MEP) and opposite transit 8th lord Saturn at 23° 01' Sagittarius and 6th house MEP.
As natal 4th lord Venus is weak in the SAMVA USA chart, the setbacks from these severe afflictions are expected to be greater than during the October 1962 period. At that time, the leadership and the nation resolutely faced a death-like fear but without any real harm. This time, the discontent of the public over another costly war is likely to surge. Moreover, as the transits continue difficult for the USA into the fall, there will likely not be a quick resolution if the situation comes to blows. The Iranian regime may also resort to terrorist attacks in the USA. As transit Saturn moves into Capricorn and 7th house of the SAMVA USA chart in January 2020, it is likely the communal strife seen from the onset of Trump's term will then begin to ease. 

As for Iran, the difficulty seen in the horoscope for the Islamic Revolution, suggest the theorcratic regime may collapse. If so, this would pave the way for a new chapter in the Middle East, based on increased commercial prosperity and peaceful relations among Shia and Sunni factions.

Sunday, May 5, 2019

Rebirth of Israel

The Behistun rock inscription is evidence of early Israel.
The search by Cosmologer for an authentic horoscope for Israel has been long standing, It has been discussed on the earlier SAMVA discussion list on Yahoo (2000-2018) and more recently on the new SAMVA Group on Facebook.* Three earlier candidate charts have been considered, but eventually they all encountered major failiures in prediction, necessitating their rejection as tentative charts for Israel. The premise of the search is that there is a single horoscope that represents the karmic destiny of the Jewish people, in terms of the creation of the modern collective entity of Israel. Sustaining the search effort have been the numerous successful or accurate predictions based on other proven mundane charts, such as the horoscopes for the USA, UK and India, as well as the accurate method of interpretation and prediction, the Systems' Approach. The venerable astrologer, the late V. K. Choudhry, citing the SAMVA USA chart discovered by Cosmologer and John T.W. Battalana, also predicted that other authentic mundane horoscopes would be discovered based on the System's Approach. Even if there have been false starts on a number of horoscopes, much progress has been made in the rectification work since. Indeed, as brought out in this article, a new horoscope for Israel is presented. It is based on the study of the events surrounding the adoption of the UN Partition Plan in late 1947, seen to be the signal moment or the veritable rebirth of Israel as a state. The events following this international decision, including the agreement of the top leaders of Israel on May 13, 1948 to declare independence on May 14 and their announcment to that effect coinciding with the ending of the British Mandate for Palestine, are not seen to be the basis of the authentic horoscopes. 

Historical background
Jewish traders in Egypt (19th cent. B.C.E.) 
The push for the creation of the modern state of Israel began a long time before the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, the end of the British Mandate or the formal declaration of statehood by the leaders of the Jewish homeland at midnight on May 14, 1948. The Jews established the original state of Israel in Canaan around 1.200 B.C.E.. The decline of Israel began when the Romans destroyed the Second Temple in 70. A.D.. After the Bar Kochba revolt of 136 A.D., the Jews were exiled from Judea. It was in the 8th century A.D. in Assyria that the population began to scatter around the world, as the twelve tribes of Israel. As the Jews settled elsewhere, they retained their cultural heritage, identity and memory, including the dream of a Jewish homeland, the "Promised Land" or "Holy Land".

Return of the Jews to their "Promised Land"
After centuries of dispersion, wandering and persecution, the idea of moving back to Palestine was again raised at the close of the 19th century. The First Zionist Congress sent a fact finding mission to Palestine in 1897. It reported back that “the bride is beautiful, but unfortunately she is married to another.“ Efforts by Jews to settle in Palestine led to the foundation of the Palestine Office in 1908. Its role was to import and assimilate Jews in Palestine. David Ben-Gurion became its leader in the 1920s. The organisation got the name the Jewish Agency for Palestine under the League of Nations Mandate in 1929. Its role increasingly turned to the effort of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. Zionism was the guiding vision of the Jews, to create a Jewish state in Palestine. The efforts accelerated in the 1930s, to create a new life in this ancient land and to reclaim the ancestral heritage of the ancient state of Israel. This was not an easy task as the indigenous Arabs were vehemently opposed to their efforts.

Immigrants arrive in Haifa, early 1948
As World War II approached, the British tried to bring the Arabs into the fight against Hitler by limiting Jewish settlement of Israel. In May 1939, a British White Paper limited Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75.000 per year until 1944. After that, the Arabs would have to acquiesce to further settlement. In 1939, thirty two thousand Jews in Palestine joined the British army to fight Hitler, but also to get military training to later fight the Arabs and the British. After the “Holocaust“ the determination increased among the Jews that the only viable future for them was to have their own state, with the same rights as any other state. After the war, there was a push to bring 100.000 Jewish survivors of the holocaust to Palestine. The British authorities opposed it as they worried it would unleash a civil war in Palestine and destroy their relationship with the Arabs. Armed conflict ensued between Jewish freedom fighters in Palestine and British armed forces stationed there, with the Jewish freedom fighters also engaging in terrorist acts. Meanwhile, the British navy stopped ships with Jewish immigrants headed for Palestine. Under the growing strain of the situation, the British were forced in February 1947 to turn the problem over to the United Nations. Their hope was that a bi-national state would be formed, and on 29 November 1947, the UN plan for the partition of Palestinian land into two states, one Jewish and the other Arab, was presented.

The U.N. votes on the Partition Plan, 1947.
The UN meeting was held in the General Assembly Hall at Flushing Meadow, New York on Saturday, 29 November 1947. It began at 4 p.m. (EST) and ended at 7 p.m.. Midway through the meeting a roll-call vote on the resolution was taken, with 33 in favour, 13 against and 10 abstaining. The resolution was then adopted, likely around 5:18 p.m., or around 12:18 a.m. on November 30 in Jerusalem. 
"In favour: Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela. Against: Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen. Abstained: Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia."[1,2]
Israelis celebrate in Tel Aviv, after midnight, Nov. 30, 1947.
This time is corroborated by reports of the reaction in Israel. It was after midnight that news arrived by telegram in Tel Aviv. Even if very late, the Israelis stayed up for the news, then upon hearing it, they rushed into the streets in a joyful state, with the celebration lasting until the morning hours. The Jews, which were half the population of Palestine got half the land. While the Arab territory was populated mostly with Arabs, the Jewish territory had only a slight majority of Jews, with many Arabs as well. The Arabs rejected this diplomatic solution straight away, and did not consider the UN decision acceptable. For the Israels, the UN decision allowed the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. It was a long awaited dream come true, a signal event in their long search to reclaim a place in their ancient homeland. Meanwhile, their leaders knew that they would have to fight for their new state. Importantly, the Partition Plan also stipulated that the British Mandate for Palestine should end no later than 1 August 1948.

Soldiers raise "ink" flag at war's end
Britain had abstained from the vote and opposed the partition plan, as it had favoured a two state solution. In early 1948, the British government declared that the British Mandate would end on midnight 15th of May. The leaders of the Jewish homeland decided in a day long meeting that ended shortly after midnight on 13th of May, that they would proclaim a Jewish state on 14th of May, to coincide with the termination of the British mandate over Palestine at midnight on that day. During this meeting, the choice to not do so was tabled and discussed but quickly pushed aside in favour of making a ceremonial proclamation. In the event, the meeting to make the announcement began at 4:00 p.m. on 14th of May in Tel Aviv. The proforma declaration of the establishment the State of Israel (Eretz-Israel) by Ben Gurion, the leader of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, the World Zionist Organisation, and soon to become the first Prime Minister of Israel, was completed at 4:37 p.m. The meeting then adjourned in observance of the Sabbath. The British commander of Palestine sailed from Haifa at 11:30 p.m. signalling the end of the British mandate. Shortly after midnight (E02) on 15th of May, President Harry Truman sent a wire to Tel Aviv congratulating Ben Gurion on the proclamation. Several hours later, Iraq and the neighboring Arab states, Egypt, Jordan and Syria, invaded and attacked Jewish settlements. Israel had prepared well and was able to stop the advance. The war was waged in three phases interrupted only by short periods of truce, or until 10th of March 1949, with Israel signing armistice agreements with the belligerents. Israel suffered over 6,000 casualties and the Arabs between 7,000-20,000, including thousands of civilians on both sides. Israel had survived its first existential challenge.

The new horoscope for Israel
Earlier charts studied and tested, based on Jerusalem**, Israel (Time Zone: E02).
  • 04.00 p.m., 14th of May 1948 giving 29° 54' Virgo rising, 
  • 04.37 p.m .,14th of May 1948 giving 7° 44' Libra rising, and 
  • 00.00 a.m., 15th of May 1948 giving 20° 56' Capricorn rising.

As none of these charts was found to either fit the natal potential, significant events in terms of periods and transits or yield repeat accurate predictions, we now consider the following data:

  • 00:18 a.m., 30th of November 1947, Jerusalem, Israel, giving 25° 55' Leo rising.
The 26° Leo rising horoscope at the time of the closure of the UN vote has the requisite natal strength but also reflects the evident challenges facing the state of Israel in the seventy years of its recorded history. Importantly, the chart is relocated to Israel for the moment the UN plan was adopted (30 November 1947, 00:18 a.m., Jerusalem, Israel). Based on long research and testing of horoscopes for Israel, it is the contention of this writer that Israel took its birth with the adoption of the UN of the Partition Plan for Israel. The decision by the international community effectively gave birth to the new state, even if the apparatus and circumstances for operating it were not yet in place. While its name was declared as Israel, the name surprised few. Planning by the Israeli's had been ongoing for this eventuality and its repercussions for a very long time. The early termination of the Mandate by Britain partly reflects this reality.

The major feature of the 26° Leo rising horoscope is the placement of the Sun, as 1st lord of self, in the 4th house of communal harmony, land and natural resources. It suggests that the nation identifies strongly with its land. For Leo's, the Sun becomes a significator of vitality, intelligence, status, royalty and magnificence. The Sun is strong and well placed at 14° Scorpio and 4th house, giving the Israeli people noble hearts, character, good discrimination, plenty of will power and a well functioning state. As a Leo with a strong Sun, the Israeli government and people are likely to be aware of their power, dominant, decisive and relish any positive attention they get. Sun is conjunct and combust 5th lord Jupiter in this house. This yoga (aspect) confers great intelligence, good discrimination, creativity, fortune, expansiveness and a pronounced religious sense to the nation. This strong and benevolent aspect strengthens and protects the office of the leader of the country. Functional malefic (FM) moon's north node, Rahu, at 0° Taurus and 10th house, gives material benefits involving international life, but as Rahu is also in the most effective point (MEP) of the 9th house, with an orb of 4° 37', it gives the potential for crisis involving the indications of the 9th house, including luck and the judiciary. From this place Rahu aspects the 1st house, adding an element of manipulation and diplomacy to the self image, and the 5th house of creativity and management. FM moon's south node, Ketu, is at 0° Scorpio and the 4th house but is also conjunct the MEP of the 3rd house. This placement reduces the strength of the 3rd house, as well as the 7th house of foreign policy and 11th house of income, goals and friends. Sudden setbacks are possible in these areas of life. Importantly, the nodes dually afflict the 9th and 3rd houses, straining further such indications as fortune, judiciary, transportation and communication. Mars as 9th lord of luck and foreign matters, is strong and well placed in the 1st house, giving an energetic quality to the self identity. The military and police are strong. Mercury as 2nd lord, a sun like planet, is well placed at 26° Libra and 3rd house, a sun like house. Israeli men take pride in their masculine traits. This placement also gives status from words and actions. However, the conjunction of Ketu adds an energy of isolation and separation to this area of national life. Venus, as 3rd lord, is well placed in the 5th house, suggesting intelligent communication, a good art scene and creative women. With Moon, as a FM planet due to its lordship of the 12th house of losses in the 11th house in opposition aspect to Venus in the 5th house, there is also scope for the actions and proclamations of Israel to result in losses and even conflict, as well as in isolation and sudden explosive events due to the conjunction of Ketu with the MEP of the 3rd house. The aspects of Rahu to the 5th house and Ketu to the 11th house are likely to amplify such problems. Moreover, Saturn, as 7th lord of foreign policy and leisure activities, is badly placed and weak at 30° Cancer and MEP of the 12th house, suggesting losses to foreign policy. The chart thus paints a picuture of an entity that is inherently strong, but tends to do things assertively that provoke opposition and create problems in relation to other countries

At the birth of the state of Israel, the period of Mars-Sun period was operating. Both planets are in full strength, hence the UN decision represented a tremendous victory for the people of Israel associated with their deep desire to have their own homeland in the part of the world where they originated and their history was made. As 9th lord Mars is in the 1st house of self, and 1st lord Sun is in the 4th house, where it is conjunct 5th lord Jupiter, there is a great fortune seen in terms of connecting the self of the national identity with the land, and much resilience of the people tied to both Sun and Jupiter being religious planets. At the same time, there have been great challenges for Israel to develop, given the hostility of their neighbours, linked to 2nd lord Mercury being in 3rd house Libra, which is afflicted by the nodal axis and with 3rd lord Venus in the 5th house being afflicted by 12th lord Moon.  

Major periods
The sequence of major periods from the outset suggest the trend emphasis in the history. In the Rahu major period, Israel was embroiled in problems involving its outlook on life, so different from its neighbors. However, in the following  strong and well placed and aspected Jupiter major period, Israel won the six day war of June 1966 as well as the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, seing an expansion of its territory. The Saturn period, however, was attended by difficulty. The Mercury period has also saw its share of challenges. Now the Ketu major period has started and it suggests concern by the Israelis linked to their land and actions, and relations with neighbors. The Venus major period could also be contentious, but divine grace is seen associated with its auspicious dispositor Jupiter. The Sun major period would also be very good, given reasonable transits.
  • Rahu period began on November 2, 1948
  • Jupiter period began on November 2, 1966
  • Saturn period began on  November 2, 1982
  • Mercury period began on November 2, 2001
  • Ketu period began on November 2, 2018
  • Venus period begins on November 2, 2025
  • Sun period begins on November 2, 2045
  • Moon period begins on November 2, 2051
  • Mars period begins on November 2, 2062

Israel has been running the Ketu major period since November 2, 2018, suggesting that the country is experiencing increasing isolation at this time, even if it has the staunch support of the US Trump administration. Perhaps the sense of isolation is due to the strong support of the USA, which itself is in a disagreement with regional powerhouse Iran over its nuclear weapons development and export of terrorism in the region. The Ketu - Venus period has been operating since April 1, 2019. At 9:45 p.m. on May 4, 2019, Hamas on Gaza launched a major attack on Israel, with over 600 missiles launched, killing 4 Israelis and causing property damage and grave concerns. Israel Defense Forces launched retaliatory strikes, including at the Hamas leadership, killing 23 people. The transits seem compelling for the crisis, with sub-period lord 3rd lord Venus in the 8th house of obstacles. The fact that it is natally in the 5th house under aspect from 12th lord Moon in the 11th house, suggest losses during the operation of its period. Morevoer, transit Rahu in the 11th house MEP is in aspect to natal 2nd lord Mercury in the 3rd house MEP, brining out the manipulations involving close neighbors. Indeed, Hamas launched a sudden attack on Israel. Finally, transit 7th lord Saturn is closely conjunct transit Ketu, suggesting sudden, even explosive upsets for foreign relations. 

An analysis of other significant historical events will be covered at a later date.

[1] U.N. (1947). Proceeds of the General Assembly meeting on November 29, New York.
[2] Three minutes, a documentary of the U.N. vote.

*) In memory of Jo Cohen
The rectification of this chart by Cosmologer is performed in honour of the contribution of French Systems' Approach astrologer Jo Cohen (1948-2018) who believed that an earlier 21° Capricorn rising horoscope discussed here was not suitable as it indicated greater challenges but less innate strength of the collective entity under study. In the event, the 21° Capricorn rising horoscope failed in prediction linked to the onset of its Rahu major period in mid 2016 during a transit-to-natal conjunction of the nodes, expected to bring tremendous suffering. The work of mundane astrologers is predicated on the use of the scientific method to the extent possible, e.g. by emphasizing accurate predictions as a basis of chart verification.

**) Jerusalem is the historic capital of Israel and following its recreation, it was again declared as the national capital on 13 December 1949. On December 6, 2017, US President Donald Trump affirmed the United States recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and on 14 May 2018, the U.S. Embassy in Israel was moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, on the 70 anniversary of Israel's establishment.