Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Nailed it!

The evolution of the financial crisis that emerged in 2007, peaked in the autumn of 2008 and began to wind down in 2009 has been accurately predicted based on the SAMVA USA chart. Actually, the predictions pretty much "nailed it." The following timeline of the financial crisis and predictions made demonstrate this in a convincing manner.

On January 6, 2007, one of the first predictions was made on the basis of the SAMVA USA chart. In it, "financial/market setbacks" were predicted for the Spring of 2007. The sub-prime crisis that erupted in early 2007 is considered the beginning of the financial crisis that peaked in 2008 and started to ease in early 2009.

February–March 2007
Subprime industry collapse; several subprime lenders declaring bankruptcy, announcing significant losses, or putting themselves up for sale. [1]

[Side note: In late December 2006, "violence" and "loss of life" was also predicted for the USA in the Spring. On April 16, 2007, thirty two people lost their lives in the Virginia Tech Massacre that gripped the national attention].

While the related problems in the late summer of 2007, which manifest most strongly in Germany and China, were not predicted based on the SAMVA USA chart, they are consistent with the transit-period dynamics of the chart at that time. The stock market, which had reached a new high in July 2007, quickly recovered from the August dip and reached a market top at above 14,000 in October of that year.

August 2007
Worldwide "credit crunch"
as subprime mortgage backed securities are discovered in portfolios of banks and hedge funds around the world, from BNP Paribas to Bank of China. Federal Reserve injects about $100 billion into the money supply for banks to borrow at a low rate.

In an article The year ahead for the USA on December 31, 2007 the nature of the emerging crisis was explained in terms of the Venus- Jupiter period, as Venus, 4th lord of housing is badly placed and weak in the 6th house of financial stability in the SAMVA USA chart, which is ruled by Jupiter. As a result "the acquisition of homes or vehicles is based on debt and this can become a source of conflict or problems, such as in mortgage debt defaults."

In an article The troublesome transit of Mars in Gemini on January 5, 2008 the following was noted:

"On January 1, 2008, astrologer & author V. K. Choudhry made the following prediction on the SAMVA list: "Transit Mars is going to be under continuous affliction of transit Rahu for next couple of weeks. This close affliction, in general, gives rise to ...volatility to financial markets and stress to executives."

The following was also mentioned:

"In late January and early February 2008, Mars will be at almost 0° in Gemini where it is utterly powerless. Hence, the dynamism of the indications of Mars will be at a low ebb. Fortunately, the aspect of Rahu is not as close at these times, but felt nonetheless. However, when Mars turns direct and advances back into Gemini, it will come under the aspect of Rahu again at 3° 42' around February 25, 2008. At that time, the disruption in the stock market could again be felt more strongly. In the SAMVA USA chart, the transit of Mars in Gemini is especially difficult as this sign falls in the 12th house of the chart. The 12th house is one of the three malefic houses, ruling "financial losses, expenditure, mishaps, group hospitalizations, foreign debt, wars and smuggling."

What happened? In the first three months of 2008 the problems in the financial system increased considerably and became quite difficult, but the situation remained broadly manageable.

January 2008
January 2–21: Stock market downturn.
January 24: National Association of Realtors announces largest drop in existing home sales in 25 years in 2007, and "the first price decline in many, many years and possibly going back to the Great Depression."

March 2008
March 14: Bear Stearns gets Fed funding as shares plummet.
March 16: Bear Stearns is acquired for $2 a share by JPMorgan Chase in a fire sale avoiding bankruptcy. The deal is backed by the Federal Reserve, providing up to $30B to cover possible Bear Stearn losses.

More importantly, in the December 2007 article The year ahead for the USA a "crisis in the fall [of 2008]" was predicted. Specifically, "the astrological situation will become decidedly more intense from late July. At that time, the Moon´s nodes. Rahu and Ketu, will go into stationary motion over the natal Sun in the chart at 23° 44' Capricorn in the 7th house. At that time, problems or stress will be felt from ... the wealth of the country (possibly having to do with a reduction in the value of the dollar or stocks), or difficulty for the President. This aspect peaks at the end of September and the situations that arise are expected to gradually ease in the following weeks."

In the article More financial market volatility in 2008 on February 2, 2008 the timing and nature of the difficulties seen ahead was further elaborated:

August-September 2008
- transit Jupiter at 18° Sagittarius H6 aspects transit Saturn at 18° Leo H2. This aspect, which takes place in the most effective point of the SAMVA USA chart, is expected to bring renewed volatility in financial markets.
- natal Rahu at 18° Aries aspects transit Jupiter and Saturn. This transit is linked to the above aspect, making it worse. It suggests a crisis surrounding manipulation in order to obtain easy gains. Leaders in the financial industry... may face a difficult time.

Things remained fairly benign on the surface through August 2008. It was. however, in September 2008 that all hell broke lose on the financial markets. That month had been signalled as the peak of difficulty as per the transit contacts. Leaders in the financial industry were hit with the worst financial crisis in 70 years, with many losing their firms, jobs and reputations.

September 2008
September 7: Federal takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which at that point owned or guaranteed about half of the U.S.'s $12 trillion mortgage market, effectively nationalizing them.
September 14: Merrill Lynch is sold to Bank of America amidst fears of a liquidity crisis and Lehman Brothers collapse
September 15: Lehman Brothers files for bankruptcy protection. This event is seen as the peak of the crisis, as it paralyzed inter-bank lending; leading to a seizing up of the global financial system.
September 17: US Federal Reserve lends $85 billion to American International Group (AIG) to avoid bankruptcy.
September 18: Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke meet with key legislators to propose a $700 billion emergency bailout through the purchase of toxic assets. Bernanke tells them: "If we don't do this, we may not have an economy on Monday."
September 19: Paulson financial rescue plan is unveiled after a volatile week in stock and debt markets.

While things continued very difficult in the first half of October 2008, the situation began to gradually stabilise, not least due to the significant policy actions taken by the authorities to prevent a meltdown of the financial system. The prediction in late 2007 for the "financial system to remain functioning" despite the crisis was also proved correct.

October 2008
October 3: President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, creating a $700 billion Troubled Assets Relief Program to purchase failing bank assets.
October 6-10: Worst week for the stock market in 75 years. The Dow Jones loses 22.1 percent, its worst week on record, down 40.3 percent since reaching a record high of 14,164.53 October 9, 2007. Fed announces that it will provide $900 billion in short-term cash loans to banks and makes emergency move to lend around $1.3 trillion directly to companies outside the financial sector. Central banks in USA (Fed), England, China, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland and the European Central Bank cut rates in a coordinated effort to aid world economy. Fed also reduces its emergency lending rate to banks by half a percentage point, to 1.75 percent.
October 11: Central bankers and finance ministers from the Group of Seven (G-7) leading economies, meet in Washington and agree to urgent and exceptional coordinated action to prevent the credit crisis from throwing the world into depression.
October 14: The US taps into the $700 billion available from the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act and announces the injection of $250 billion of public money into the US banking system. Nine banks agreed to participate in the program.

The prediction for the end of the year also suggested considerable difficulty.

"Further, the time in late November will be especially difficult as transit Saturn will then also be under the aspect of natal Saturn in the chart, heightening the potential for violence and the destruction of assets."

November 2008
November 15:
Group of 20 of the world’s largest economies (G-20) meets in Washington DC and releases a statement focusing on the implementation of policies consistent with five principles: strengthening transparency and accountability, improving regulation, promoting market integrity, reinforcing cooperation and reforming international institutions.
November 17: The Treasury gives out $33.6 billion to 21 banks in the second round of disbursements from the $700 billion bailout fund. This payout brings the total to $158.56 billion so far.
November 24: US government agrees to rescue Citigroup after an attack by investors causes the stock price to plummet 60% over the last week under a detailed plan that including injecting another $20 billion of capital into Citigroup bringing the total infusion to $45 billion.
November 25: The US Federal Reserve pledges $800 billion more to help revive the financial system. $600 billion will be used to buy mortgage bonds issued or guaranteed by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Fannie Mae, and the Federal Home Loan Banks.

December 2008
December 11, 2008: Bernard Madoff, Chairman of Wall Street firm Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC, arrested for bilking investors out of an estimated $20 billion in a Ponzi scheme that might be "the largest investment fraud in Wall Street history."

[Side note: The Covina massacre occurred on December 24, 2008, in a suburb of Los Angeles, California. Nine people were killed from either gunshot wounds or an arson fire inside a house where a Christmas Eve party was being held. The Saturn aspect was still close.]

Astrologer & author V.K. Choudhry predicted on SAMVA list in 2008 that the financial market turmoil would diminish from December 2008 and more so after February 2009. It is clear that this prediction has been realised. In October 2009, the Dow Jones Industrial Average again exceeded 10,000.

January-February 2009
The worst start to a year in the history of the S&P 500 with a drop in value of 19%.
February 17: Allen Stanford charged by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission with "massive ongoing fraud" involving $8 billion in certificates of deposits.

March 2009
March 8: Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman says that up to 45% of global wealth has been destroyed by the global financial crisis.
March 9: the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index falls to 6,440. The decline is compared to that of the 1929 Great Depression.
March 10: Rally begins, taking the Dow up to 8,500 by early May 2009 and over 10,000 in October 2009.

In the article The banking crisis of 2008 and the SAMVA USA chart on March 17, 2008 the following was predicted:

"The outlook for the economy is not very good for the next few years. The dynamics will also shift in the sub-period of Saturn as 8th lord from February 2009. The conditions in the US economy have ramifications for economic growth around the planet. Saturn natally afflicts the 2nd lord of wealth, Sun, in the SAMVA USA chart, such that it can both confer easy gains or lead to losses of wealth. At the beginning of the Saturn sub-period, a difficult aspect will be coming to an end involving the affliction of natal Saturn to transit Saturn (Nov '08-Feb '09). This transit can bring ...problems for easy gains or wealth. Finally, as the Venus period lasts until 2016, the issues having to do with housing and financial stability will continue to be felt for some years. However, it is likely that the major difficulty will be experienced in 2008, while the Jupiter sub-period is still operating. This is because of the natal link between Jupiter and Venus, due to the placement of Venus in the sign Sagittarius, owned by Jupiter."

In the article Greed and fear in astrology on December 26, 2008 it was mentioned that the "[SAMVA USA chart] indicates that the economic recovery will be slow in coming."

Further, in the article Predictions for the USA in 2009 on December 31, 2008 the following was stated that during the Saturn sub-period lasting from February 17, 2009 to April 19, 2012 "the economy may become sluggish."

In September and October 2009 the data suggest a recovery is taking place in the US economy, even if unemployment is expected to continue rising for some time.

While further financial market volatility is possible at this time, it is expected to be short lived and be more focused on the burgeoning debt of the USA in terms of the low value of the dollar and rising interest rates on US debt. This was explained in the article
Astrology of increasing public debt published on March 21, 2009.

It is clear the predictions based on the SAMVA USA chart were pretty accurate when it comes to both the nature and timing of the events. This is further evidence for this being the authentic national horoscope for the USA.

[1] Wikipedia: Subprime crisis impact timeline

Saturday, October 24, 2009

Irreligious influences

The divine planet Jupiter has in 2009 been transiting its sign of debilitation, Capricorn (in the sidereal zodiac). During this time, it is perhaps not surprising to find that the cultural spotlight has been prominently placed on things that are generally not considered divine, rather the opposite, or irreligious things. Irreligion is defined as an absence of religion, indifference to religion, and/or hostility to religion. [1] Of course, in the Kailyuga (iron) age, the tendency is for pervaisive materialism. However, even within this materialistic age, the religious tendency would be affected by the transit of Jupiter.

Dark films
One expression of our collective sense are things that are celebrated by our culture. On August 27, 2009 Lars von Trier's film "Antrichrist" was nominated for the prestigious Nordic Council Film Prize 2009. The film was awarded this price on October 21, 2009. [2] The film is so horrific that film goers have gotten physically ill during viewing. More importantly, the film explores the human psyche to find only horror, mystery and violence. [3] The movie, which extols a hellish view of nature, also received prominent notice at the Cannes film festival during the Spring and has been wildly popular at Danish cinemas this year.

Another expression of Nordic culture in the year 2009 has been the even greater popularity of the movie "Men Who Hate Women," based on a family story emphasising lust and meanness. The movie includes a 10 minute long rape scene, which most viewers find horrific or disturbing. In this article, we explore a little more closely what the stars suggest about such things.

In SA vedic astrology, Jupiter is considered the "preceptor of the gods." Jupiter is the "general significator for fortune, justice, charity, creative intelligence, easy gains, kindness, knowledge, happiness, wisdom, morality, virtue, dharma, spiritual education, spiritual life, good behavior, expansion, compassion, optimism, sincerity, honesty, common sense, divine grace and, in fact, all good things in life." [5]

When Jupiter is strong in the nativity, it signifies amongst other things priests and astrologers. It rules also "the propaganda of spirituality. When it is strong, it gives growth, expansion and a humanitarian and spiritual outlook, and denotes wisdom, optimism, faith, geniality, generosity, joviality, humor, idealism and good powers of judgment. It bestows intelligence and knowledge of scriptures in its main and sub-periods."

Jupiter weak in transit
When Jupiter is weak, however, it denotes "overconfidence, overindulgence, extravagance, immorality, greed, materialistic attitude (wanting the best of everything)." Jupiter has been weak in transit during 2009, while it has been in the sign of Capricorn. Capricorn is an earthy sign ruled by Saturn, associated with practical realization. Capricorn is a moveable, negative, tamasic, vata, female, semi-fruitful, first half quadruped and second half footless sign and signifies tact, cheating, lethargy and melancholic nature.

Rahu also in Capricorn
During 2009, Jupiter has been accompanied by the materialistic planet Rahu in this sign. Along with the 8th and 12th lords, Rahu rules lust and abuses. Transit Rahu exits Capricorn and enters the sign Sagittarius on November 3, 2009. In Sagittarius, Rahu will be dependent on the strength of Jupiter in transit. Jupiter will remain weak in transit for the remainder of 2009. However, on December 20, 2009 Jupiter will enter the sign of Aquarius. After emerging from infancy (the first 5 degrees of the sign), it will become strong in transit in this sign and its indications should then do a lot better. However, during the transit of Aquarius, which is the moolatrikona sign ruled by Saturn, Jupiter's strength in transit will depend on the strength of Saturn in transit. Until 2012, Saturn is transiting the sign of Virgo, the moolatrikona sign ruled by Mercury. In turn the strength of Saturn in transit will be dependent on the variable strength of Mercury in transit.

Looking forward
After Jupiter and Rahu have both entered other signs, there should be some change in our collective sense of the divine. In the first half of 2010, while Jupiter is transiting Aquarius, there should be a turn towards more humanism and efforts to help ordinary people. With Ketu entering the sign Gemini in early November, greater interest could also develop in the ancient spiritual practices associated with ascetism. When Jupiter enters its own (albeit non-moolatrikona) sign of Pisces in the second half of 2010, the divine sense could be more associated with the surrender of attachments in order to be engulfed by the divine. In any event, we could expect that the low point of Jupiters indications is this year. That said, with Rahu in Sagittarius for most of 2010, some materialistic influences could be expected to continue with regard to Jupiters indications also that year.

[1] Irreligion - definition
[2] Nordic Council Film Prize 2009
[3] Antichrist (film)
[4] Men Who Hate Women (film)
[5] Learn astrology

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Oil price prediction realised

Yet another mundane prediction based on the Systems' Approach has been realised. Earlier this year, when oil was below $40 it was predicted to rise in 2009. Indeed, the oil price has been rising throughout 2009. Saturn entered Virgo in early September and the oil price is now more than double its price at the beginning of the year, but less than the peak reached in 2008 when Saturn was in Leo. It was also predicted that the oil price would remain below the earlier peak of mid 2008. So far, this prediction has also been fulfilled.

Oil hits $82 per barrel as dollar plunges
AP - 4:07 pm EDT, Wednesday October 21, 2009

Oil prices hit new highs for the year Wednesday just as the dollar fell to new lows against the euro, showing how much the weak U.S. currency has come to dominate energy markets. Benchmark crude for December delivery rose $2.25 to settle at $81.37 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Prices hit $82 at one point. [2]

Discovery of an amazing pattern
In the article Riddle of the oil price resolved, published on December 6, 2008, there is a discussion of how the oil price has exhibited a clearly discernible pattern for over six decades involving the transit of Saturn, the general indicator of oil and those things mined from deep within the ground. While the pattern of the oil price is well described in the article, let's just recall the main finding that when Saturn transits the royal sign of Leo, there is an observed tendency for the oil price to be higher than otherwise. The price is also seen to peak while Saturn is in this sign. A trend decline in the oil price is then seen to take place until Saturn passes into Aries, where it is debilitated. At that time, the oil price cycle is also seen to reach a bottom. Afterwards, when Saturn moves out of Aries, the oil price trend is seen to ascend again. Of course, there is plenty of volatility seen and this is linked to the variable transit conditions. Moreover, Saturn's energy manifests differently for different countries, based on their true horoscopes, as Saturn becomes a functional benefic or functional malefic based on the rising sign. Hence, while there are myriad influences from all over the world associated with the transit of Saturn, some countries benefit from a higher oil price while others are hurt by it.

The oil price development
A point of interest is the fact that the price of oil fell dramatically from its July 2008 peak of $133 per barrel. In February 2009, the oil price was on average around $39. The price thus dropped by about 70%. Since then, the oil price has recovered handsomely. That said, let us now consider, as was done in the discussion in early March 2009, what could explain such a huge drop and, more importantly, what would be expected for the price of oil peering forward with the aid of astrology. The following is replication of the discussion on SAMVA list from that time.

Sharp drop in the oil price

The financial crisis and the associated decline in demand for oil explain the drop in the oil price in the second half of 2008, which continued into 2009. The real world developments have been monumental. The most explosive financial crisis in the world since the 1930 became intense in August and all hell broke lose from mid September 2008. The outlook for the US and international economy steadily worsened from that time and until early 2009.

Saturn afflicted in transit

Saturn was heavily afflicted in transit during the second half of 2008 and the oil price plunged from the highs of mid 2008. This development in the oil price is consistent with transit Jupiter afflicting transit Saturn. In September 2008 other difficult transits involving Saturn took place as seen in the SAMVA USA chart. These afflictions were described in the article Crisis in the fall. In November Saturn was again highly afflicted by Saturn, at which time another affliction emerged in the SAMVA USA chart, involving an aspect from natal Saturn to transit Saturn. This aspect is just now beginning to lift. In short, the drop in the oil price reflects the dramatic afflictions involving transit Saturn, both universally, but also in terms of the authentic horoscope for the USA. After all, the demand for oil in the USA is important for the oil price, which is also quoted in US dollars internationally. In short, the transit afflictions explain completely the development to date.

Saturn in Leo and then in Virgo

Generally, a high oil price level is expected while Saturn transits these signs. Saturn in Leo is historically linked to the top in the oil price. It is likely that an unafflicted and strong Saturn will be linked to a higher oil price, more so as it is in Leo. The oil price, history shows, tends to remain fairly high while Saturn is passing through Virgo. However, this would likely only be seen when Saturn is unafflicted in transit.

Saturn period in the SAMVA USA chart

A sluggish economy and weak demand is expected during this period. In the Saturn period of the SAMVA USA chart, the US economy would be expected to become more sluggish. It is likely that this is not good for the oil price, as the higher price depends on strong demand. Moreover, the oil price is linked to the global development. In particular, conditions in other countries are also important for the outcome. In fact, from the second half of 2008, demand for oil was weak all over the world and it was highly uncertain how it would evolve.

Transit Saturn in the SAMVA USA chart

In March, when looking forward we could see that Saturn would be weak from April to June 2009. Moreover, the affliction of 8th lord Saturn to the most effective point of the 2nd house in the SAMVA USA chart, where it is placed, was expected to be associated with the weakness of Saturn albeit in the prosperous sign of Leo. This was expected to keep the oil price subdued. That said, the oil price was then at a super low level, reflecting the continuous affliction of transit Saturn from August 2008 to February 2009. While it is not helpful for Saturn's indications that it is weak in transit, it was seen that it would at least no longer be receiving strong afflicting aspects during the summer months. It was then predicted that the oil price would be expected to "rise a little bit but remain well below the peak levels of 2008." In a follow up message, in response to a question, it was further stated that "As Saturn moves into Virgo in the fall, the price could recover a bit. In Virgo Saturn is free of natal afflictions but must contend with transit afflictions and the weakness of Mercury in transit." [4] Recently, Mercury has been strong while transiting its own Moolatrikona sign of Virgo.

Looking forward

It is now October 2009 and when we look forward we can see that transit Saturn will become stationary at 10° Virgo in late 2009 and in the first two months of 2010. From this position it will closely afflict the 10th lord Mars in the 5th house of the SAMVA USA chart. At that time, we would expect things like the oil price to have a deleterious effect on the international demand for US automobiles or place a temporary strain on the manufacturing sector and professions ruled by Mars, including soldiers and police.


In general, as was predicted on March 4, 2009, it has been realised that when Saturn is without affliction in transit or afflicting in the SAMVA USA chart, we would see a higher oil price when Saturn is transiting the signs of Leo and Virgo. Finally, we should keep in mind that when the prediction was made there was a lot of uncertainty concerning the future evolution of financial markets, the US and global economy and hence about the oil price. This makes the accurate prediction of the oil price development based on astrology all the more remarkable.
[1] Oil price prediction made on SAMVA list, March 4, 2009
[2] Oil hits $82 per barrel as dollar plunges, AP - 4:07 pm EDT, Wednesday October 21, 2009
[3] Riddle of the oil price resolved, December 6, 2008.
[4] Follow up to oil price prediction made on SAMVA list, March 4, 2009

Saturday, October 10, 2009

Greco-Indian astrology

Many Western astrologers assume modern Western astrology owes its origins to the discovery of astrology by the ancient Babylonians. [1] They also consider that astrology was further developed by the Egyptians of antiquity before reaching its penultimate stage in the Hellenic world. Further, they consider that the 'horoscopic astrology' of the Hellenic world informed astrology in India. At the same time, the evidence suggests 'horary astrology' was originally developed by Indian astrologers. [2] The above conclusions are strictly based on an interpretation of the literary record. One important anomaly has, however, emerged in this story, which this article explores.

Fully formed birth
As in the story of the Greek goddess Athena, it appears that the highest stage of astrology, horoscopic astrology, sprang forth fully formed in Hellenic literature of the late 2nd century BCE or early 1st century BCE, without any evdience of astrology appearing earlier in Greek thought. This is a startling feat. But how realistic is this theory? There is one Indian book that survives from the earliest time of recorded Greek astrology and it is called the Yavanajataka (Astrology of the Greeks) by Sphujidhvaja. [3] While these facts present us with a case for concluding that Greek astrology informed Indian astrology, it ignores a number of critical historical facts. There is also considerable controversy over the timing and origin of this work, as discussed below.

Ancient Indus Valley civilization
There is no doubt that an advanced tantric civilization existed in ancient India that predates the Greek and Babylonian civilizations. [4] The religious text of the Upanishads, which many date to the 2nd or 3rd millennia BCE or earlier, was likely recorded later. These texts contain a variety of advanced astronomical calculations, including planetary combinations and eclipses. [5] David Frawley has shown that the zodiac was described in the religious texts of the ancient Vedic civilisation, at least one thousand years before astrology appeared in Greece. The Vedanga Jyotishya, the earliest known astrology text, based on Sun-Moon astronomical calculations for ritual purposes, was written around 1200 BCE but is likely much older. [6] The fact that the term for astrology, Jyotishya, was known in vedic India is another confirmation of its earlier existence there. Studies of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, even before the Greek civilization emerged, reveal an important role of astrologers in royal courts and daily village life. [7]

Dearth of documentation
The problem scholars are encountering with regard to Vedic astrology is the lack of historical documentation. In addition to the risk of ancient information simply becoming lost over time, the most profound reason for the absence of such written information in modern times is "The Vedic veneration for Sanskrit as a sacred speech, whose divinely revealed texts were meant to be heard, recited and memorized rather than transmitted in writing." [8] Moreover, in the stratified Indian society, the Brahmin class of intellectuals, to which astrologers belonged, is known to have preserved some of their knowledge through an oral transmission of the 'sutras' (verses of knowledge) from one generation to the next rather than through transcribing. These reasons suggest that, aside from the major or foundational works, not much would have been written about the ancient enlightenment knowledge of the Vedas. This could have been more relevant when it comes to the propagation of Vedic astrology knowledge over time. This makes it more important to study and understand the circumstantial evidence concerning such knowledge, its emergence, social importance and development in the ancient Indus Valley civilization.

Alexander the Great opens up the world
Alexander the Great blazed a trail into India in the late 4th century BCE, exposing the Greek world to new ideas and techniques from the East and creating the Hellenic civilization in the process. Among the influences coming from India were an advanced and humane cosmology and stunning scientific discoveries in mathematics. In turn, Greek became the 'lingua franca' of the Bactrian Greek kingdoms, which extended into India.

Greco-Indian civilization
Following the Classical period of Greece from 490 BCE to 323 BCE, the Hellenic civilization is considered to represent the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world. This period ran from 323 BCE to sometime during the 1st century BCE. In the Greco-Roman civilization that followed, Greek culture, art and literature permeated Roman society, whose elite spoke and read Greek as well as Latin. After the conquest of Alexander the Great, Hellenic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia and ancient Egypt. While this resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, there is strong evidence that these new kingdoms were strongly influenced by the indigenous cultures.

Earlier links
The cultural link between the Mediterranean peoples and those of India goes back well before the Alexandrian conquests. There were the Silk and Incense trade routes as well as transport of animals and goods by sea for thousands of years before the Hellenic age. One manifestation of this is the fact that mathematical numbers were discovered in India, perhaps in the early 1st millennium BCE. These numbers found their way to the Mediterranean region and transformed the mathematics of the Arabs, although much later.

Babylonian and Indian Astrology
Scholars have less to go on when it comes to the relationship between Babylonian and Indian astrology. While it is certain that Babylonian astrology developed before Greek astrology, it was for the longest time not a horoscopic form of astrology. As astrology and astronomy developed together in antiquity, it is important that scholars have determined that Indian astronomy concepts predate the emergence of comparable concepts in Babylonian astronomy. [9] While the scholars do not assert that Babylonina astronomy was derived from Indian astronomy, at least they have shown the independent earlier development of Indian astronomy. This indicates that also astrology developed earlier in India. That said, the oldest surviving Vedic horoscopic astrology texts are from the period when horoscopic astrology had already been established in west Asia and around the Mediterranean sea. While future research will hopefully shed more light on this, let's look more closely at the circumstantial evidence.

Pythagoras' debt to India
It has been suggested that the theorems of Pythagoras, from the early Classical period in Greece, are of an Indian origin. The Apastamba Sulba Sutra (circa 600 BC) contains a numerical proof of the general Pythagorean theorem, which many believe was based on earlier traditions. Further, it was theorized that Pythagoras visited Arakonam, India, and copied it. [10] While not much is known of Pythagoras based on his own writings, it is thought that he believed in reincarnation, a concept of Indian origin. In any event, there is much historical evidence for the notion that principal discoveries came from India that transformed the understanding of the peoples of the Mediterranean world. In the same way, the spread of Indian ideas to East Asia resulted in the transformation of the preexisting cultures.

Greek communities in India
It is also a fact that following the conquest and colonization efforts of Alexander the Great around 323 BCE, Greek communities were established in India. However, shortly after his death, the Mauryan Empire extended its reach and overtook the Indus Valley region, which Alexander had conquered. The founder and ruler of the empire, Chandragupta, was a devotee of the Jain religion, which is part of the tantric civilization. The Greek communities were in the northwest region of Pakistan, notably ancient Gandhara near Islamabad, and in southern Afghanistan in the region of Gedrosia. Chandragupta was in conflict with the Greek king Seleucus I, ruler of the Seleucid Empire, who tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India, during a campaign in 305 BCE, but failed. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty with the exchange of gifts, where Chandragupta received the territories of Kamboja, Gandhara, Kandhahar and Gedrosia, while Seleucus I received 500 war elephants. Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes, Deimakos and Dionysius resided at the Mauryan court. Megasthenes wrote a major source book on India. [11] In ensuing centuries, the rulers of Greece continued to send ambassadors to India, with one, Heliodorus in the 1st century BCE, becoming a devotee of the Upanishads. These high level contacts and Greek communities in India confirm a steady flow of information between Greece and India. The Greek communities were still significant during the reign of the emperor Ashoka the Great, who ruled the Mauryan Empire from 273 to 232 BCE.

India and the Stoics
Legend has it that Chandragupta gave up his throne and adopted asceticism under the Jain saint, Bhadrabahu Swami. He breathed his last in 298 BCE in present day Karnataka. A small temple marks the Bhadrabahu Cave where he died. Ashoka was influenced by the spirituality of his grandfather, emperor Chandragupta. However, he converted to Buddhism, another prominent religion of the tantric civilization, after unleashing a bloody civil war to gain power. It is said that his conscience bothered him when surveying the battle fields after his victory. He then wrote the 'Edicts of Ashoka' which were carved in large stone pillars and placed throughout his empire to encourage citizens to emphasize goodness in daily life. It is likely no coincidence that the Stoic school of philosophy also empahsizing goodness in life and a universal divinity emerged in Athens some twenty or thirty years after Alexander's conquest of India and became popular among astrologers around the Mediterranean sea some one hundred and fifty years later. The influences and the direction of causality seem compelling.

Ascetism and the divine
There is a thread of ascetism running from ancient Vedic India, through Buddhism, to Judaism (the Essenes) and on to Christianity and finally, Islam. [12] A recent theory is that the idea of a God-man in the Christian and Islamic religions is an influence of earlier such expressions of divine men in the tantric religions of India, including the legends of Shiva and Krishna in the Vedic religion and of Buddha in the Buddhist religion. This notion represents a clear break with the existing monotheistic religion of the Jews or the ahistoric personified gods of the Greeks and Romans. Such influences suggest the Hellenic age would more appropriately be considered a Greco-Indian age; in the sense that new ideas came to the Greek controlled Mediterranean region from India. [13] To examine the literary record without considering this historical context may explain why some have rushed to judgment about the origin of horoscopic astrology. Let us now turn to the astrology of the ancient world.

Controvery over the Yavanajataka
There is an ongoing debate in India about the 'Astrology of the Greeks', both its origin and time of writing. Rather than being written in the time of Alexander the Great as some have suggested, scholars have concluded it was written in the 2nd or 3rd century AD. Agastya Rishi has suggested Yavanajataka was not a Greek but a Yavana work. In this regard, he notes that the Yavana's used Navamsa (9th house divisional) charts while contemporary Hellenistic astrologers like Vettius Valens, Firmicus Maternus and Theodorus of Sidon did not. [14] He also points out that while all Greeks were Yavanas not all Yavanas were Greeks. Some Indian scholars have concluded that the Greeks didn't have astrology at the time of Alexander, but that astrology was introduced to Greece after 280 BC by a certain Berrossus, more than 50 years after the death of Alexander. In other words, there is considerable controversy surrounding the conclusions that may be drawn from the existence of this book, the Astrology of the Greeks.

Origins of Horoscopic Astrology
Horoscopic astrology is a form of astrology which uses a graphical representation of the Sun, Moon and planets with reference to the twelve signs of the zodiac at any given moment in time. A critical ingredient of horoscopic astrology is the use of twelve houses, beginning with the ascendant, the sign that rises over the Eastern horizon at any given moment of time. The word for the ascendant in Greek is horoskopos. Meanwhile, the word for the study of the stars in the West is astrology, meaning the ‘logic of the stars’. Over time, horoscopic astrology has come to denote the study of astrology in terms of a chart as a whole. The debate whether this most developed form of astrology originated in the Hellenic or Vedic civilization is examined more closely here.

Horoscopic formats
In the respected work Greek Horoscopes, by Neugebauer and van Hoesen, three basic horoscopic formats are shown. [15] The two to the right are found most often in "Latin and Islamic astrological literature." The middle one is the very same horoscope format used in North India to this day.

Primacy of the ascendant
In Holden's History of Horoscopic Astrology there is the following reproduction from the translation by Pingree of the Astrology of the Greeks. [16] It is the earliest literary horoscope recorded in Greece. While not exactly shaped like a Vedic chart it is of considerable importance that the ascendant is placed at the top of the diagram, which is the ancient custom of Vedic astrology. It is known that later practitioners of Greek and Roman astrology moved the ascendant to the left side of the chart, the horoskops. This was linked to the increased focus of astrologers on the Sun and its physical appearance over the horizon in the morning. This emphasis on the Sun was also related to the seasons, which the solar cycle governs. In effect, this was part of a gradual transformation of astrology, which over time became modern Western astrology. At the same time, it is likely that this transformation was a critical evolutionary mistake in the practice of astrology in the West.

Vedic astrology
In India, the birth chart is known with its sanskrit name as a Kundli or Rasi chart, while the rising sign is called the Lagna. The term for astrology is Jyotisha, meaning the ‘science of light’. The astrology of India is alternately called Indian astrology, Hindu astrology or Vedic astrology. The term Indian reflects the geographic location of the astrology. The term Hindu represents the modern cultural expression of the astrology. Meanwhile, Vedic reflects the ancient tantric philosophy of this type of astrology. In the Vedas, astrology was considered the sixth limb of enlightenment knowledge. The cosmology of the Vedas is arguably the most important ingredient of astrology, including the 'law of karma'. In fact, the planets, grahas, represent the accumulated karma of the soul, to be expressed in the life, but giving scope for the expression of our 'free will'. Hence, the term Vedic astrology is preferred. Vedic astrology is still practiced today, much like it was many thousands of years ago. It is the modern system of horoscopic astrology closest to that practiced in the Hellenic world.

Signs, houses and planets
Horoscopic astrology is based on signs, houses and planets and their meaning is well established. The sanskrit names of the signs and planets are shown here. The mythology of Rahu and Ketu streteches back into antiquity, related to the knowledge of the ancient Rishis (sages) of the eclipses.

Houses and their meaning
What gave birth to horoscopic astrology as we know it is the concept of houses. The logic of the twelve houses is tied to the twelve signs. The houses show the areas of life where the influences of the planets and signs manifest. The rising sign is considered to be the first and most important house as it represents the person. The others houses, which represent key areas of the life, are counted from the sign falling in the first house. The twelve houses have been identified to represent the following meaning in the life of the individual.

1st: SELF, e.g. physical attributes, personality, fame & well being.
2nd: RESOURCES, e.g. family, wealth & status.
3rd: EFFORTS, e.g. younger siblings, actions, speech & courage.
4th: INTERESTS, e.g., mother, education, inner harmony & home.
5th: CREATIVITY, e.g. children, romance, speculation & trading.
6th: OPPOSITION, e.g. enemies, fixity of views, debts, health & conflict.
7th: PARTNER, e.g. husband/wife, foreign trips & leisure.
8th: ENDINGS, e.g. obstacles, death, inheritance, fathers income & beliefs.
9th: SUPPORT, e.g. father, guidance, higher thought, fortune & foreign things.
10th: CAREER, e.g. public persona, professional activities & fame.
11th: GOALS, e.g. elder brother, friends, plans, hopes, ideals & income.
12th: SEPARATION, e.g. grandfather, losses, far away places & prison.

Systems' Approach
The logic of house rulerships by the planets is also unique for each ascendant and this is the essence of the Systems' Approach (SA) to vedic astrology. The planet 'ruling' a Moolatrikona (MT) sign becomes a functional ruler of the house that the MT sign falls into. In addition to its general nature, the planet carries with it, more importantly, a functional nature of the particular house its MT sign falls in. The other sign a planet may 'own' (excluding the Sun and Moon) and the house it falls in becomes less important for the overall horoscopic interpretation. That said, whatever house a planet resides in, its functional and general indications get expressed in that area of the life.

The dynamic changes for each ascendant. Those with the sign Aries rising are expected to approach life differently than those with say the sign Virgo rising.
Mars becomes 1st lord for Aries while Mercury becomes 1st lord for Virgo. By comparison Mars becomes 6th lord for Scorpio ascendants and Mercury becomes 4th lord for Gemini's and this means the planets take on a different functional meaning for these ascendants. There are many more considerations for a horoscopic reading based on SA vedic astrology, but this gives some sense of the logic.

Whole sign house system
Importantly, in the original horoscopic astrology the houses are considered to be equivalent to one whole sign. While the whole sign house system appeared in Greece, later developments in Western astrology changed this original scheme.

A singular problem
A singular problem in the history of astrology is the fact that many of its students and practitioners have shown a tendency for insufficient wherewithal to master the basic elements of astrology. Alternatively, they may have been working with an ineffective method or system of astrology. In any event, due to their failiure to achieve success in interpreting horoscopes or making accurate predictions, the disaffected astrologers have tended to seek new ideas or techniques, with many such efforts of doubtful value. Over time this has led to the introduction of a confusing array of ideas and techniques in astrology, which have obscured the essence of astrology as a language of the stellar influences. In general, while Vedic astrology has also been saddled with this tendency, an even greater tendency for this has been seen in Western astrology. After science and the scienctific method emerged in the Hellenistic age, with advances in astronomical knowledge, there arose a tendency to incorporate new astronomical insights into astrological practices, which reduced the interpretative and predictive accuracy.

Evolutionary wrong turn
There are several key mistakes that can be linked to the practice of astrology in the Roman Empire, its disappearance during the dark ages and the rediscovery of astrology in the West in the early middle ages. A key mistake was that medieval astrologers took to heart a recommendation in the grossly overrated astrology text Tetrabiblos, by Ptolemy. [17] Not only did this book reproduce an altered and incorrect version of older astronomical tables, showed no evidence of basic horoscopic astrology, but it provided the flawed advice to anchor the 0° Aries of the zodiac on the vernal point rather than to adjust the zodiac for the drift associated with the precession of the equinoxes as the Indians have consistently done, with the aid of the ‘ayanamsa’ calculation. The sidereal zodiac is therefore fixed in real sense. [18] Or as David Frawley points out, the Indians, who knew about precession for a long time, kept the zodiac fixed on the outer constellations while the Western astrologers kept theirs focused on the narrower seasonal cycle of the Sun. This mistake led to the evolution of the 'tropical' or moving zodiac in the West and the associated drift of the signs away from their original and visible constellational locations, such that the signs are now almost a whole sign away from their visible counterparts. Western astrology also developed an overemphasis on the role of the Sun in astrology, with the Sun sign becomnig the predominant key to a reading, rather than the ascendant as in the original horoscopic astrology. Moreover, in Western astrology houses became to be considered as independent of the signs, due to astronomical innovations or errors, such that they were allowed to overlap signs and become unequal. Thus, to compound the zodiac problem, the whole sign house system fell out of the astrological practice of the West. In the modern age, Western astrology has been further burdened by the tendency of its practitioners to adopt newly discovered invisible planets, often tiny outlying bodies in the solar system, and graft on to them ancient Greek mythological meanings as possible influences, with little evidence aside from their assertions of their influences. While the planets were given names of Roman gods, there is scant evidence that the astrology of Hellenic age was driven by Greek mythological meanings. That said, in renaming the planets and signs, and altering the horoscope format, a truly unique Greek astrology was born. No matter, the result of all these wrong turns is that Western astrologers have mostly been left with the study of planetary influences, stripped of the accurate sign and house meanings. While this is a sad state of affairs for those beholden to this form of astrology, hopefully this article will help some to rediscover the roots of the more comprehensive horoscopic astrology of which the astrology of the Vedas is still a living branch.

Visible astrology of the Vedas
The practitioners of Vedic astrology have never lost view of the visible planets, the original sidereal zodiac or the whole sign house system. As a result, Vedic astrology has been spared the greater confusions of Western astrology. The contribution of the Systems’ Approach has been to remove the accumulated contradictions and confusions, to further hone the interpretative and predictive accuracy of Vedic astrology.

In the ancient Bhagvad Gita of the Upanishads there is the following verse:

"The splendor of the sun, which dissipates the darkness of this whole world, comes from Me. And the splendor of the moon and the splendor of fire are also from Me" (Chapter 15, Verse 12).

This and many other statements about eclipses, the other planets and prophecy demonstrate the complete integration of astrology with the Vedic concept of the divine.

In sum,
- an examination of the Babyloninan, Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Arabic literal record is not giving a comprehensive picture
- the historical setting has to be examined
- knowledge of ancient Indian texts (in Sanskrit) is still incomplete
- oral transmission intra-familia was likely the way that this knowledge was propagated in India in ancient times
- the spread to the West of horoscopic astrology after the invasion by Alexander may have been through Indian court-astrologers
- the trantric civilization opened up human beings to deeper knowledge of a living idealism, through meditation and true assessment. Importantly, astrology was perceived as an integral part of the religious traditions.
- the fidelity of Indian astrologers with the Ayanamsa correction, the horoscope format and horoscopic astrology in its original form is likely the single greatest clue about the source of this knowledge being India.

- despite being continuously modified through astronomy, technique and general knowledge, the divine knowledge has depreciated steadily in the West as a meaningful language of the cosmic influences on human life. The conflict between astrology and the Christian religion as well as the reign of materialism in the modern age are likely contributing factors.

While there is literary evidence of works of Greek astrologers in the late Hellenic age, including the transportation of one such book to India in Roman times, this is far from sufficient proof of the origins of horoscopic astrology. Given the caste system, Indian astrologers likely passed down their astrology knowledge intra-familia, avoiding to disseminate it in book form. It is more likely that an oral transmission of Vedic astrology knowledge to the Hellenic world took place, perhaps through Indian court astrologers. After mastering the horoscopic astrology system, the Greek astrologers set about to modify and enhance it with a number of astronomical innovations, a new naming system, a new horoscope format and likely some novel insights. It would have been transcribed by the Greeks and re-exported to India in that form. Understandably, it would have been recognised as a novel contribution by Indian astrologers of that age. Nevertheless, given the monumental contribution of Indian civilization to philosophy and science - not least the human praxis of enlightenment - it is ahead of us to perform research into the ancient sanskrit texts, to the extent that they exist, and other sources to settle this matter once and for all.

However, we also need to put this issue in its proper perspective. While it is helpful to understand how these ideas emerged, spread and evolved, as my friend Rémi stated so well "what is really important is the development of the practitioner's efficiency in this day and age." In a similar vein, astrologer & author V.K. Choudhry has observed: "All ancient knowledge needs changes for the present era. Tracing history is one thing but finding validity is more important." Indeed, this is the chief concern of those applying the System's Approach.


[1] See for instance Rochberg, Francesca, "Babylonian horoscopes," The American Philosophical Society, 1998 or Scofield, Bruce, "The Nature of Mesopotamian and Non-Western Astrology" [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2009]
[2] Brennan, Chris, "The Transmission of Hellenistic Astrology to India" [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2009]
[3] Sphujidhvaja, “Yavanajataka,” 2 volumes, translated by David Pingree, 1978, Harvard University Press. See also reproduction of the text in English online at
[4] Frawley, David, “Gods, sages and kings: Vedic secrets of ancient civilization,” 1991, Passage Press and "Vedic Origins of the Zodiac", October 13, 2009 [Retrieved on Oct. 29, 2009].
[5] Scientific Verification of Vedic Knowledge (video)
See also R. N. Iyengar, "Dhruva the Ancient Vedic-Hindu Pole Star"
[6] Vedanga Jyotishya
http://www.vedicastronomy.net/vedanga.htm and http://www.desitip.com/servlet/drenderer?sel=Astrology
[7] Sen, Sailendra Nath, "Ancient Indian History and Civilization," 1988, New Age Internationla Publishers.
[8] Plofker, Kim, "Mathematics in India," 2009, Princeton University Press.
[9] Kak, Subhash, "Babylonian and Indian Astronomy: Early Connections," Jan 2003. [Retrieved on Oct. 11, 2009]
[10] Van der Waerden, Bartel Leendert, “Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations,” 1983 and “Apastambiya-Sulvasutra,” ed. and translated into German by Albert Bŭrk, ZDMG, Vols 55, 56. 1901-02
[11] Dahlaquist, Allan, "Megasthenes and Indian Religion," 1962, Motilal Banarsidass.
[12] Bartram, John A., "Greco-India and Divine Men" [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2009]
[13] Greco Buddhism [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2009]
[14] Discussion of origin of 'Astrology of the Greeks' (open archive)
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/JyotishGroup/message/24895 and of Indian astrology (membership required) at
[15] Neugebauer, O and H. B. Van Hoesen, "Greek Horoscopes", 1987, The American Philosophical Society.
[16] Holden, James H., "History of Horoscopic Astrology", 1996, AFA.
[17] Ptolemy, "Tetrabiblos," 1822, J.M. Ashmand, Davis and Dickson.
[18] Gleadow, Rupert, "The Origin of the Zodiac," 1968, Dover Publications.

Monday, October 5, 2009

Birth of modern China

Most people look to either September 21, 1949 or October 1, 1949 when the People's Republic of China (PRC) was officially founded as having given birth to modern China. As an astrological examination of these dates has not provided a convincing match for major significant events in China's modern history, further research into the history of modern China was undertaken. An event has now been identified that may represent the actual birth of modern China. This event is the founding by Mao Zedong and his cadre in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) of the Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR) in Ruijin, Jiangxi province, on November 7, 1931. A 23° Capricorn rising chart has tentatively been rectified for this day, based on Ruijin as the capital and with the proclamation having been given at 13.00 hrs. This chart should be considered work in progress.

The Two China period
The period from 1931 to 1937 is known in Chinese history as the 'Two China' period. At that time, most of China was part of the Republic of China (ROC), which was led by generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang (KMT) forces. The CSR was supported by the Soviet Union, while the ROC was supported by the Western powers.

Red Emperor
The single or red thread from the creation of the CSR and its transition into the PRC is Mao himself and the struggle of the CCP, which he led, for rule over China. In this regard it is important to note that China has had a continuos history of dynasties of emperors from around 1600 BCE. The period stetches over almost 4 millennia of recorded history. During this time, the emperors have been the 'central organising principle' of the nation. Mao assumed this role in modern Chinese life and thereby filled the vacum in Chinese society created by the Revolution of 1911. However, he did so in the name of a new ideology, communism as defined by him. As such, he founded a new dynasty in the name of the CCP and not his direct descendants. In October 1934, after the lands controlled by the CSR had been encircled and overrun by the KMT, Mao and his cadre undertook the famous Long March to establish a new base and preserve their fighting capabilities. Things took a different turn in 1937, with the onset of the Sino-Japanese war, which lasted until Japans' surrender in World War II, in 1945. As a gesture of peace with the KMT, in order for the CCP to join in the fight against Japan, the CSR was officially abandoned. However, Mao was ingenious in meeting the demands of the KMT. In its resolution on February 21, 1937, the KMT demanded the "Dissolution of the so-called "Chinese Soviet Republic." The CCP, which saw it essential to safeguard its future by making compromises with the KMT, declared on September 22, 1937: "This party abolishes the present Soviet government... " [1] In other words, the present government was abolished but not the new nation. As soon as it was convenient to do so, Mao's efforts to unite China under his rule continued. As Japan's fortunes in WW II began to wane, Mao turned his undivided attention to conquering the KMT. Those efforts succeeded in 1949 when the KMT fled to Taiwan, an island that had earlier been taken over by Japan. The ROC has continued there, but is increasingly isolated given the might of the Communist regime on mainland China. Due to his increasing alienation from the Soviet communist model, Mao created a Peoples Republic in 1949. However, the earlier proclamation of a Soviet Republic had brought the new nation into existence, and it continued.

History of China
The history of humanity in what is now China is traced back into the ancient mists of time. The history of China as a national entity goes back to the Shang Dynasty, which ruled from around 1600 BCE. The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy, however, developed later, in the feudal Zhou Dynasty, from around 1000 BCE to around 300 BCE. The Zhou Dynasty broke apart into individual city states, creating the Warring States period. However, in 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. The dynasties of China developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor to directly control the vast territories. The dynasties alternated between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign Asian peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population.

Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR)
The Chinese Soviet Republic was a state established in November 1931 by the future Communist Party of China leader Mao Zedong, legendary general Zhu De and others. Mao Zedong was CSR State Chair and Prime Minister - at once the Head of the State and of its Government. It was from this "small state within a state" that he gained the experience in mobile warfare and peasant organization that he later used to accomplish the Communist conquest of China in the late 1940s. The CSR was destroyed by the KMT's National Revolutionary Army in a series of Encirclement Campaigns eventually designed by the German general Hans von Seeckt.

On November 7, 1931, the anniversary of the 1917 Russian Bolshevik Revolution, with the help of the Soviet Union, a National Soviet People's Delegates Conference took place in Ruijin , Jiangxi province, which was selected as the national capital. " Chinese Soviet Republic " was born, even though the majority of China was still under the control of the nationalist Government of the Republic of China. On that day, they had an open ceremony for the new country, and Mao Zedong and other Communists attended the military parade. Because it had its own bank, printed its own money, collected tax through its own tax bureau, therefore, it is considered as the beginning of Two Chinas.

The Chinese Soviet Republic continued to exist formally after the fall of the Jiangxi soviet, as the communists still controlled some areas like the Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet. [2]

“It was in the eastern part of that province that on 7 November 1931, the anniversary of the October Revolution, the consolidation and extension of the main base led to the procalamation of a Chinese Republic of Soviets, with Mao presiding over the Council of People’s Commissars. Until its final triumph in 1949, Chinese Communism was to go thorugh many incarnation and terrible setbacks, but the main model was establisehd here: concentrating the energy of the revolution on the construction of a state, and focusing the efforts of that state, which was to be warlike by nature, on forming a strong army to crush the enemoy, which was the central government of Nanjing, presided over by Chinag Kai-shek.” [3]

In November 1931, the First All-China Soviet Congress was convened in Ruijin , Jiangxi and it founded the Chinese Soviet Republic as a national regime and established separate state and military structures to operate at the national level. While direct control over the military was taken away from Mao Zedong, he was appointed to the new post of Chair of the Soviet government. Xiang Ying and Zhang Guotao were appointed as his deputies. Zhu De was appointed chair of the newly established Central Revolutionary Military Commission, with Peng Dehuai and Wang Jiaxiang as his deputies. The Congress also adopted a Constitution for the Republic that designated it as a "democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry." However, there was no pretence that the Soviet was anything other than a communist one-party dictatorship. In the remote rural area there were no industrial workers, the proletariat consisted almost entirely of village artisans, handicraftsmen, and farm laborers. This notwithstadning, the Constitution acknowledged that "only the proletariat can lead the broad masses to socialism," and thus they were to have extra representation in the Soviet. [4]

Kuomintang of China
The Kuomintang of China, translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party of the ROC, commonly known as Taiwan since the 1970s…The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the ROC ruled much of China from 1928 until its retreat to Taiwan in 1949 after defeat by the CCP during the Chinese Civil War. [5]

Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was fought between the KMT (or Chinese Nationalist Party) and the CCP. The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. The war represented an ideological split between the Western-supported Nationalist KMT and the Soviet-supported Communist CCP. In communist historiography the war was also known as the "War of Liberation." The civil war carried on intermittently until the Second Sino-Japanese War interrupted it, resulting in the two parties forming a Second United Front. The Japanese assault and occupation of Eastern China was an opportunistic attack made possible by China 's internal turmoil. Japan 's campaign was defeated in 1945, marking the end of World War II, and China 's full-scale civil war resumed in 1946. After a further four years, 1950 saw a cessation of major hostilities—with the newly founded People's Republic of China controlling mainland China (including Hainan Island), and the Republic of China's jurisdiction being restricted to Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and several outlying Fujianese islands. To this day, since no armistice or peace treaty has ever been signed, there is controversy as to whether the Civil War has legally ended. Today, the two sides of the Taiwan strait have close economic ties. [6]

Second Sino-Japanese war
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945) was a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany (until 1938) and the Soviet Union (1937-1940). After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the war merged into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front in the Pacific Theatre. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the twentieth century. Although the two countries had fought intermittently since 1931, full-scale war started in earnest in 1937 and ended only with the surrender of Japan in 1945. The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy aiming to dominate China politically and militarily to secure its vast raw material reserves and other resources. At the same time, the rising tide of Chinese nationalism and notions of self determination stoked the coals of war. Before 1937, China and Japan fought in small, localized engagements in so-called "incidents". Yet the two sides, for a variety of reasons, refrained from fighting a total war. [7]

CCP and KMT join to fight Japan
The Second United Front was the alliance between the KMT and CCP during the Second Sino-Japanese War or World War II, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946…It was a moment rarely seen during wars- where both sides join together to face a greater threat…The alliance that was created with the Communists was in name only and the Communists hardly ever engaged the Japanese in conventional battles but proved efficient in guerrilla warfare. The level of actual co-operation and co-ordination between the CCP and KMT during World War II was minimal. In the midst of the Second United Front, the Communists and the Kuomintang were still vying for territorial advantage in "Free China" (i.e. those areas not occupied by the Japanese or ruled by puppet governments). The situation came to a head in late 1940 and early 1941 when there were major clashes between the Communist and KMT forces. In December 1940, Chiang Kai-shek demanded that the CCP’s New Fourth Army evacuate Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces . Under intense pressure, the New Fourth Army commanders complied, but they were ambushed by Nationalist troops and soundly defeated in January 1941. This clash, which would be known as the New Fourth Army Incident, weakened the CCP position in Central China and effectively ended any substantive co-operation between the Nationalists and the Communists and both sides concentrated on jockeying for position in the inevitable Civil War. Within the Japanese occupied provinces the KMT and CCP forces carried on warfare with each other, with the Communists eventually destroying or absorbing the KMT forces or driving them into the puppet forces of the Japanese. By the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Communists were in control of nearly all of the areas of North China not controlled by Japan or its puppet forces. [8]

Quasi-dissolution of the CSR
In any event, when the KMT and CCP joined in the Second Front there was a cessation of the Chinese Civil War, shortly after the outbreak of the Sino-Japan war. As part of the cessation of the Civil War, the KMT, in its resolution on February 21, 1937, demanded the

"Dissolution of the so-called "Chinese Soviet Republic,"

In return, the CCP, which saw it essential to safeguard its future by making compromises with the KMT, declared on September 22, 1937:

"This party abolishes the present Soviet government,... " [1]

Importantly, the CCP it did not abolish the national entity, only the government. This was of course a formal gesture, as the organisation of the military campaign of the CCP continued in the hands of Mao and his generals. Moroever, as this was a temporary truce, to fight a common enemy, which both had reasons to do, hostilities between the CCP and KMT broke out not long afterwards.

People's Republic of China
After its victory in the Chinese Civil War, the CCP, led by Mao Zedong, gained control of most of Mainland China . On 1 October 1949, they established the People's Republic of China as a Socialist State headed by a "Democratic Dictatorship" with the CCP as the only legal political party, thus, laying claim as the successor state of the ROC. The central government of the Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek was forced to retreat to the island of Taiwan that it had occupied at the end of World War II, and moved the ROC government there. Major armed hostilities ceased in 1950 but no peace treaty has been signed. An estimated 36 million died during the Great Chinese Famine of 1958–61. [9]

The history of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the CCP in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the PRC from atop Tiananmen (the gate of heavenly peace). The PRC has for several decades been synonymous with China , but it is only the most recent political entity to govern mainland China , preceded by the ROC and thousands of years of imperial dynasties. [10]

Sino-Soviet split
The Sino–Soviet split was the gradual worsening of ideologic relations between the PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War (1945–91). [11] Their doctrinal divergence owed as much to Chinese and Russian national interest, as with the régimes’ interpretative Marxist ideologies. In particular, Mao did not like the Soviet Union's focus on displacing peasants and forcibly moving them to urban centers for heavy industrial production. His own communist model was based on support from largely peasant population, with an emphasis on establishing light industries in agricultural communities. The ideological differences, as well as border conflicts, led to a public break between Mao Zedong and Nikita Khrushchev, the Premier of the Soviet Union, in the 1960s.

Summation of historical evidence
It is likely that Mao, given his alienation from the Soviet development model led him to create a new image for China, the People's Republic. This act was, however, not the real birth of the nation he created as this had been achieved with the proclamation of the Soviet Republic. In sum, it is held that the creation of this national entity, CSR, in 1931, even if not ruling over the entire country at that time and formally being called the PRC in 1949, represents modern China.

Capricorn ascendant fits well with the 'personality' of the Chinese people. It is a sign owned by Saturn, a planet characterised as being stern and representing old things. Indeed, the country is based on a history stretching back into the hoary mists of time and is based on a phenomenal cultural legacy.

According to Author & Astrologer V.K. Choudhry, the rising sign Capricorn
"...is a negative, non-human, earthy and semi-fruitful sign. It signifies tact, cheating, lethargy and melancholic nature if its ruler, Saturn, is weak....Capricornians are social as Venus rules their tenth house. They are conservative, selfish and selective in approach. They are secretive, pensive, organised, proud and fastidious. They are vigilant and tactful. They have compromising nature in order to achieve leadership...They long for leadership, political power, practice of law and business. Their major pursuits in life include acquisition of assets, partnerships and social contacts for personal benefits and selfish ends...The significator for the soul, the Sun and significator for morality and generosity, Jupiter, are functional malefics for Capricornians." [12]

The major elements in the natal potential of the chart are as follows:

- 2nd lord Saturn is in the MEP of the 12th house of losses and foreign things. By itself, this is not a good placement for status, wealth or relations with neighboring countries. It is interesting that in its history of the 20th century, China enjoyed preeminent status in marginal countries like communist Albania under Enver Hoxa, the North Korean dynasty of Sun Il Jung and the islamist Republic of Iran.

- 10th lord Venus is conjunct 9th lord Mercury in the 11th house. There is fortune in the international presence and it is rooted in ideals. There is an emphasis on equality, order, centralisation of political power, decentralised progressive economy, foreign trade, etc.. Importantly, this chart shows the importance of foreign trade for China in obtaining revenue. In recent decades, China has acquired a huge trade surplus viz-a-viz the rest of the world.

- There is one problematic affliction of FM Rahu in the 3rd house of initiatives, which closely afflicts 4th lord Mars in the 11th house. This placement would explain the many gigantic earthquakes which have befallen China. It would also explain a tendency to manipulate peoples expression to maintain central power. This tendency would greatly reduce the happiness of the people.

- A debilitated 8th lord Sun is on the MEP of the 10th house, afflicting also the 4th house. There have been frequent large earthquakes, with loss of life and property. The influence on the 4th house is seen in the decade long culturual revolution (1966-1976), which decimated the education system in China. The powerful placement of the Sun, while giving obstacles and endings, also gives China a power status in the world. With the prominent influence of 8th lord on 4th house, there would be the atheistic tendency of the Communists, albeit the placement of 10th lord Venus and 9th lord Mercury find expression in the 11th house of ideals.

- Another grave affliction is that of Ketu being conjunct the 7th lord Moon in the 9th house. This suggests sudden setbacks in foreign policy. Ketu in the 9th house also indicates isolation or uniqueness with respect to the philosophical outlook.

- As 12th lord Jupiter is at the edge of the MEP of the 7th house, there are foreign entanglements, which are not that helpful.

The following significant events are also exmained as the chart must explain all such events in a convincing manner. Should there be a major event identified that does not match the history, this would be reason enough to reconsider the chart.

Significant event 1: The Long March, Ocotber 16, 1934, for two years
Moon-Saturn period. The Moon is natally conjunct Ketu, the planet of isolation. The Saturn sub-period also suggests deprivation and losses, as Saturn is placed in the 12th house. The over 6000 mile journey saw significant loss of life but brought the communists in touch with their future political base, the peasants.

Significant event 2: Tangshan earthquake, 28 July 1976
Jupiter- Moon period was operating. Moon is conjunct Ketu the lord of sudden and explosive events. Transit 8th lord Sun was conjunct 2nd lord Saturn, ruling the masses, resulting in hundreds of thousands of lives lost. Transit 12th lord Jupiter, the sub-period lord, was opposite natal 9th lord Mercury, undermining the divine protection.

Significant event 3: Tinnamen Square protests, 4 June 1989
Saturn-Venus period was operating. Transit 10th lord Venus was in the 6th house of conflict under aspect from Rahu, the lord of crisis, in 2nd house. Transit 8th lord Sun was conjunct 12th lord Jupiter in the 5th house of universities.
The future
Looking forward, we can note that the chart is running the Mercury - Rahu period until December 11, 2011. From December 2009 to February 2010, transit Rahu will be stationary at around 27° Sagittarius in the 12th house. In that degree it will be conjunct natal 2nd lord Saturn at 25° Sagittarius. At that time, the dispositor of Saturn and Rahu, transit 12th lord Jupiter will be placed in Aquarius and the 2nd house. Moreover, transit 2nd lord Saturn at 10° Virgo will be conjunct natal Ketu in the 9th house. This suggests a crisis having to do with China's status, wealth or relations with neighbors. As Jupiter is natally placed in the 7th house, a foreign policy issue is likely. Moreover, as Rahu natally afflicts 4th lord Mars, some problems for the military and police cannot be excluded, especially as transit Mars will be stationary at 24° Cancer, were it is debilitated and conjunct natal Jupiter. A major earthquake is also possible at this time.

[1] The China White Paper: August 1949, United States. Dept. of State, Lyman Van Slyke, pages 48-50.
[2] Chinese Soviet Republic
[3] The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, 1999, Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Adrezej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek and Jean-Louis Margolin, Harvard. http://books.google.com/books?id=H1jsgYCoRioC&pg=PA471&lpg=PA471&dq=China+proclamation+November+7,+1931&source=bl&ots=cYtpROHgh5&sig=sASFSuD6IUYCJefmQMJF3zfSffU&hl=is&ei=RcDISv-gJsS24Qa667HHAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3#v=onepage&q=november%201931&f=true
[4] The CSR: A new state; one party dictatorship
[5] The Kumonintang (KMT)
[6] Chinese Civil War
[7] Second Sino-Japanese War
[8] Second United Front
[9] People's Republic of China
[10] People's Republic of China
[11] Sino-Soviet split
[12]Capricorn rising characteristics