Friday, June 19, 2020

Battle over Trump


In June 2020, a growing battle rages in America over the future of the country and who shall lead it. Since 2016, a veritable political revolution has been underway in the USA. While it exploded on the scene after the financial crisis of 2008 and subsequent recession, its roots lie deeper as is explained below. 

The popular revolt began in Obama's first term, with the Tea Party movement in 2010 and then the more radical Occupy Wall Street protests in 2011 and 2012. This was an uprising of people on Main Street, the 99 percenters, against the Wall Street bail-outs of the 1 percenters. These protests were early expressions of voter dissatisfaction with the political status quo and corruption in Washington DC, where politicians pass laws favourable to their wealthy sponsors in order to become wealthy themselves. It was into this dynamic that the independently wealthy businessman, Donald Trump, stepped in order to take up the reform banner in 2015 and he has carried it bravely since. But there has also been a counter-revolution in the offing, begun as an unsuccessful deep-state effort to remove Trump from Office, followed by race riots in May 2020 and anarchy in Seattle in June 2020. 

The November 3, 2020 election will decide which direction the nation takes. The political opposition wants to return to the Obama era policies of globalism, while Trump seeks a mandate to continue with his nationalistic policies of reform. 

Making Trump the Issue
Interestingly, rather than focus on Trump's policies, the Democrats and media corporations try to frame the election around Trump's character. They have directed relentless attacks at perceived flaws in Trump's personality, accusing him of racism and supporting white supremacists. They cite his unpredictable temperament as a risk to national security and point to alleged past sexual transgressions and cutthroat business practices as the best indicator of his true motives to enrich himself while in office. On June 18, 2020, Nancy Pelosi summed up the Democrat's position by stating that "Trump Is ‘Ethically Unfit, Intellectually Unprepared, and Personally Unqualified to Be President’". 

Trump's reform vision

Meanwhile, Trump's supporters focus on his visionary strategic intelligence and management capability to reverse the nation's course. Indeed, despite relentless hostility and Machiavellian opposition from the Democrats, the deep state and the media corporations, President Trump has managed to make strides since January 2017 in reforming the costly US-China trade relationship, rampant illegal immigration, anti-business tax policy, restrictive government regulations, lack of high tech manufacturing, abusive foreign relationships, lack of military preparedness, insufficient space exploration, costly military engagement around the world, business-hostile environmental protection, limits to the role of religion in the public square, etc., etc. 

Trump's political inheritance

Trump claims that policies of previous administrations decimated American manufacturing jobs, left a dilapidated military, weakened America's position in the world, allowed drugs and crime to sweep the country, while poverty was allowed to become entrenched around the nation, and most of all was killing the American spirit. Indeed, anarchy has reigned in America's inner cities, with growing crime met by increasing police violence. Trump´s professed aim is to Make America Great Again, and in his second term to Keep America Great, by restoring well-paying jobs, especially for minorities in the inner cities, in an effort to bring them out of the poverty-and-crime trap. 

Setbacks for Trump 

After a bruising impeachment battle from Spring 2019 to early 2020, the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic from China, punctured Trump´s election sales pitch. The economy ground to a halt and unemployment skyrocketed. As Trump has struggled to revive the economy and get people back at their jobs, the Democrats suggest the problems are all a result of Trump's failed policies, suggesting also that high profile police killings of black men are being encouraged by his racism. However, all of this is not stopping his supporters, who are crowding in Tulsa ahead of Saturday´s rally

Wealthy Puppet Masters

The reality of American life is that billionaires own the huge international corporations and their interests are not those of ordinary Americans. In fact, they directly benefit from the misery of Obama era economic policies of e.g. unrestricted free trade and illegal immigration, that have inflicted so much economic pain on ordinary Americans. As the middle class was systematically eviscerated from the 1970s, the greatest inequality emerged since the era of Robber Barons in the late 19th century.  

Market-based capitalism or corporate socialism?
President Trump is working to reverse these policies, while keeping the basis of American capitalism intact. It is true, free-market capitalism has been abused by the wealthy, undermining true democracy. Despite this, Trump's opponents, the Democrats, seek to grow the role of corporate-socialism, whereby high-income individuals pay extraordinarily high income taxes to keep the poorest clothed and fed through government handouts. Meanwhile, the rich, who own the corporations, are largely left untouched by the income taxes in order to become ever richer, while the poor get poorer. Likely, wealth taxes are needed, along with reforms to the free trade dictum, to not only equate supply and demand more effectively in the US economy, and thereby reduce the reliance on debt to drive economic growth, but also to reduce the shocking poverty. Should Trump fail on this score, the days of capitalism may be numbered. More amazing, is the guile and corruption of the mega wealthy, who use their media corporations to exploit any claim relating to Trump's alleged personality flaws. They do so to hide or obscure the true source of the problem, their corruption in buying political power to enact policies that serve their wealth building. Theirs is a highly unethical stand that many left wing or liberal Americans fail to understand. In their naivete or ignorance, they are caught up in the daily projection by the amoral hired guns of the media corporations, worrying about Trump as this "evil" man that is out to get them.

The duality of Donald Trump
It is easy to understand the astrology of this duality in Trump's 7° Leo rising chart:

The Cons
The character issues are related to his 1st lord Sun being weak in old age and afflicted by an exalted Rahu in the 10th house, while opposite an exalted Ketu and debilitated 12th lord Moon in the 4th house. This placement, indeed, made Trump a wealthy man, who used cutthroat business practices. He also has 3rd lord Venus conjunct 7th lord Saturn in the 12th house, suggesting his utterances are problematic and that his close relations involve losses. So, there is both smoke and fire there.


The Pros
However, Trump also enjoys the placement of a strong 5th lord, ruling intelligence and management ability, Jupiter, well placed and strong in Virgo and 2nd house. Its dispositor, 2nd lord (ruling wealth, status and family) Mercury, is equally well placed and strong in Gemini and the 11th house. These placements indicate tremendous gift in understanding complex management issues and ability to form a strategy to enact reforms. Moreover, the strong Jupiter makes the man religious. As Jupiter also rules offspring, Trump has handsome and capable children that bring him joy. These gifts are boosted by his 9th lord, ruling religion and father, Mars, being conjunct his 1st house most effective point (MEP). Indeed, Trump owes both his wealth and religious sense to his father taking him along to listen to the sermons of Norman Vincent Peal. As the Jupiter major period opened up at the very time that Trump was elected President in November 2016, Trump's religiosity became apparent.

Trump and religious freedom
To understand the complexity of the political debate in the USA, it is noteworthy that the Democrats have seen Trump's religious stance as a flaw. This is because it runs against their atheist or a-religious beliefs. As part of their globalist (anti-nationalist) plan, they seek to evict religion from the public square in order to make a one-world government more acceptable to all. The no borders strategy is part of the same mind set. To this end, the Democrats promote other religions in America, as a counterweight or antidote to the nation's Christian heritage. Perhaps, the assumption is that the religions will cancel one another out? Clearly, denial of religion became a Politically Correct way toward this end. Trump has rejected the PC strictures. As his bible photo (above) and Merry Christmas greetings show, he is unapologetic in his support for revitalising the majority religion, Christianity, which he claims is part of true religious freedom

Globalism's problem brought forth a solution
The real problem with globalism is economic, or its reliance on unrestricted free trade, which has eviscerated the US middle class. That situation made Trump's Presidency a reality, and little more. He honed a message that filled the vacuum for policies supporting the middle class. Meanwhile, his opponent, a part of the political elite in Washington DC, focused on the one world ideals and to become wealthy through their public service (to their paymasters).  

Trump Derangement Syndrome
It is now easier to see that voters who detest President Trump focus on his character issues, while his supporters look past them and see more his ability to manage the national affairs in their favour. Moreover, due to the role of the Democratic party and media corporations, many of those who can't stand Trump, find it easy to deny the reality of his reforms, being supported on a daily basis in the reality contorting reportage of the media corporations. They are focused on his flaws as a man, whether they see him as a
 white supremacist racist, as in the "Fine People Hoax", or as a "dangerous" man. For instance, his early critics warned that he was a war mongering fascist and would get the US embroiled in needless wars. The experience has been exactly opposite. Trump has been busy trying to reduce America's military footprint around the globe and avoid "hot" wars. Today, it is Washington DC's most famous war monger, John Bolton, that is Trump's key critic, due to Trump' reluctance to go to war.  What some find more troubling with Bolton's book is not his negative depiction of Trump, which has become commonplace, but the fact that Bolton, as he himself describes it, was in the White House solely to push his own personal foreign policy favouring war over diplomacy. In order to strike fear in the hearts of voters, Trump's opponents have recently labelled him "an enemy of democracy" as the "head of a terrifying new far-right insurrection." Meanwhile, Trump continues to implement the policies he campaigned on, trying not to be slowed down by the political opposition. All these distortions have given rise to the term Trump Derangement Syndrome.

The voter's decision
There are now two positions competing in the November 3, 2020 election. The Democrats seek a return to the Obama era policies and Trump wants to continue with the reforms. Who will win?

Horoscope of Donald Trump

In the 2016 election, when Trump was on the cusp of a supremely strong Jupiter - Jupiter period with Jupiter strong in transit, Indian author and astrologer, Vinod Kumar Choudhry, predicted Trump would win, even as the odds seemed overwhelming against him. He proved to be right in his prediction, when the majority of astrologers predicted for Hillary Clinton to win

In 2020 election, Trump, as the incumbent, is fighting for a second term when his sub-period involves Saturn, that is weak and badly placed both natally and in transit. That is not a good combination. Indeed, Trump's political position has weakened suddenly and remarkably in his Jupiter-Saturn period that began in January 2019, but more so after transit Saturn entered Capricorn and his 6th house in January 2020. Then his economic progress was suddenly halted and reversed by a scary pandemic and thereafter his popularity was hurt by an outrageous case of police violence in Minneapolis and the violent riots that followed. 

Joe Biden's Horoscope

However, the Democrats are fielding a candidate, Joe Biden, who has his own weaknesses, involving allegations of corruption to enrich his family members as well as the onset of old-age senility and past statements of a racist nature. A 28° Libra rising horoscope has been rectified for Biden, which brings out his magnetic personality and explains his stunning rise in life, major family tragedies but also his political corruption. On election day, Joe Biden will be running the Jupiter-Rahu period, with transit Rahu in the most effective point of his 8th house of endings, conjunct his 10th lord Moon of career. It is likely that his background will catch up with him on election day.

Despite his own weakness, and his own difficult period and transit influences on election day, it is likely Trump will manage to be re-elected. He has also been the driving force for enacting the reforms predicted during the Sun major period of the SAMVA USA chart. It is hard to imagine that a candidate who promotes a 180° turn will replace him. 

Interestingly, the SAMVA USA chart bespeaks of a repeat of civic or other violence as 2020 ends and 2021 begins. One possible expression is that Democratic voters, due to their frustration with the apparent demise of their political project and influence, will become fed up by the relentless negative media coverage of Trump and take to the streets in protest, with some committing acts of violence. 

One element in Trump's favour is the Jupiter-Mercury period, that runs from July 2021 to October 2023. During that time, his strategic vision will likely be validated in the collective mind, no matter the acute protestations of the Democrats and media corporations.

Summary
There have been long standing efforts to undermine Trump and then remove him from his duly elected position through underhanded means. It is possible his opponents have not given up. While Trump is in a weakened position until mid-2021, it is nevertheless predicted that he will be re-elected as President of the United States on November 3, 2020. 

Qualification
The views and insights presented in this article, contextualising President Trump and the modern US political development, are those of Cosmologer. They should not be taken to be a result of analysis with or otherwise related to the Systems' Approach.

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Understanding the Beatles

In the 1950s and 60s, a cultural revolution swept the world. It involved young people finding their voice and imparting a new existential vision. Accelerating the trend in the early 1960s were the creative personalities, beautiful songs and positive lyrics of the Beatles. The wave crashed as the decade closed, influenced by social upheaval and the rampant drug use and impractical outlook of the hippies. Nevertheless, the legacy of its surge lives on, notably of the Beatles. Below is a Vedic Astrology reading of the horoscopes of the four individuals that made up the Beatles, and how their group dynamic resulted in a sum that far outstripped its parts in spreading their novel, joyful, beautiful and exciting music around the world. The focus here is on the rising sign to bring out their personalities, but also on a few special combinations in each chart that add further insight to them and their contribution.

John: Leader and driving force
As an Aries rising, John Lennon, was a born leader. He founded the group by attracting the others. This is seen in his 9th lord of luck, Jupiter, being conjunct his 11th lord of friends, Saturn, in his 1st house of self. His 7th lord Venus was also in the most effective point (MEP) of the 5th house, aspecting his 11th house of friends. Indeed, he required close partnerships in his life, first with Paul McCartney and later with Yoko Ono. Having created the group, John Lennon led them to the top. There is a story about how he, as their early leader, kept the band's spirits high when it was still struggling to break out. John Lennon was also the band's original lead singer, which is seen in clips of their early performances, with Paul McCartney and George Harrison adding harmonies. Another interesting fact is that John´s instrument was the rhythm guitar, where his energetic and upbeat guitar playing made the songs soar. It was no accident; he is quoted as having said "Rhythm Guitar can really drive a band." At the same time, he was an immensely creative musician. All these expressions are consistent with his Aries rising personality and chart placements, notably Venus, as 7th lord, in the most effective placement of the 5th house. His 4th lord Moon was in the most effective point of his 10th house, explaining his enormous public appeal.

Paul: King of harmonic melodies
As a Leo rising, Paul McCartney soon became Lennon's equal and full partner in their musical creations. Indeed, his 1st lord of self, the Sun, is placed in the 11th house of friends, along with the 5th lord of creativity, Jupiter. His cheerful presence and enormous musical abilities impressed Lennon. He also added a feeling of majestic splendor to the overall effect, by e.g. adding brass sections to certain songs. In his 2019 book, The Beatles from A to Zed, Peter Asher mentions Paul's love of brass bands. McCartney himself says the orchestral arrangement of A Day in the Life, is one of his favourite memories in Abbey Road Studios. With Paul's 3rd lord Venus in the MEP of the 9th house, made him fortunate in his expression and songwriting. Meanwhile, his 2nd lord of status, Mercury, in the 10th house MEP made him supremely famous. While he played bass throughout, he also sometimes played the guitar "full of reckless abandon and bravado" on Good Morning, Good Morning, while on songs like Blackbird, he used "succint phrasing". His abilities knew no bounds. Lennon and McCartney shared writing credit for most of the Beatles repertoire, even when they increasingly began to write independently. Paul wrote and sang their biggest hits, like Yesterday and Hey Jude. Brian Epstein's death and Yoko Ono beginnig to eclipse Paul's creative partnership with John, set in motion the end of the band. As John withdrew from 1968, Paul increasingly took over the creative helm, befitting his Leo ascendant.

George: Exotic innovator of beauty 
As a Libra rising, George Harrison became the bands virtuoso guitar player. His 11th lord of friends and goals, the Sun, was placed in the MEP of the 5th house of creativity, boosting his creative abilities. With 10th lord of fame, the Moon, in the MEP of the 1st house of self, he had wide public appeal. Like Paul, he has Jupiter as 3rd lord of expression, in the 9th house of fortune, making him the most religious of the band, bringing in exotic sounds from India through his sitar playing. As the youngest of the group, he became known as the "quiet Beatle". Even so, he impressed the others with his skills as a guitar player, including parts that added depth and refinement to the songs. Over time, he began to bring out his own compositions, but the others were initially reluctant to include them on the LPs. However, songs like I Need You, Something and While My Guitar Gently Weeps, now stand among the best songs of the band.

Ringo: Rhythmic fountain of unity 
As a Pisces rising, Ringo Starr was the most sensitive and congenial member of the group. He joined the line-up in 1962 already an accomplished drummer, reflecting his conjunction of three functional benefic planets, the 2nd lord Mars, 5th lord of intelligence, Moon, and 7th lord of others, Mercury, in the creative 5th house. His 10th lord of fame, Jupiter, is well placed in the 2nd house of status, bringing wealth and fame. His charming and quietly funny personality fit well with the others, and later served to defuse tensions and keep the band together. More than that, he contributed drumming licks and rhythmic hooks, with a unique feel to them, that rounded out the genius of the others contributions, to make the songs as amazing as they are.

Conclusion
Early days (June 2, 1960)
The spirit of the Beatles was expressed in a creative fusion of their immense personalities and natural talents in over 200 songs. John Lennon brought a compelling force that drove the group to the top, Paul McCartney lent his melodic genius to all of their efforts, George Harrison added his refined virtuosity and beautiful parts and songs, and Ringo Starr rounded out the picture with his unique and feel laden drumming. Additionally, we may note that two of the Beatles, John and Paul, have fire signs in the ascendant, making them focused on the creative spirit, George has an air sign, making him focused on ideas and Ringo has a water sign, focusing more on the emotive side. Furthermore, John and George have cardinal signs in the ascendant, making them interested in change, with John focusing on promoting peace and George on introducing Indian cosmology and music, while Paul has a fixed sign, making him interested in preserving what is, as seen in e.g. his emphasis on mining existing musical canons in his creative activity, while Ringo has a mutable sign in the ascendant, allowing him to focus on the here and now while inter-mediating between the others. Without these diverse talents and creative elements being brought together, the Beatles would never have reached the pinnacle of their field while creating music that continues to delight to this day. This 'sum is greater than its parts' factor, is also seen in the fact that even if each of them was an outstanding artist in his own right, their solo material, while also great, is nevertheless judged to fall short of their collaboration as the Beatles. 

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Mexico's struggle

A new horoscope for Mexico, with early Pisces rising, is presented and explained in terms of its historical meaning, fit with the national experience, and astrological interpretation. Predictions for what to expect in the country in 2020 are offered based on the influences of operating planetary periods and transits of slow moving planets. The predictions offer an important test of the new chart.

The challenge of rectifications
Rectifying a horoscope for a nation is often far more challenging than doing the same for a person. The reason is simple. The birth of a person is normally known to the day, if not the time of day. However, the moment when a nation, a collective entity, is created is not always well understood, documented or known. As a result, mundane rectifications often require as much knowledge of history as of astrology. The tendency for most astrologers is to not invest much knowledge in history, while taking common birth events and dates as a given. In doing so, they expose themselves to an over-reliance on possibly flawed historical assumptions of earlier astrologers, which can defeat the rectification effort. On top of that the astrology methods used for chart interpretation and prediction vary in reliability, including the choice of 

  1. planets: ranging from those visible to the naked eye to those that are invisible;
  2. zodiac: relying either on visible constellations of fixed stars or calculated signs based on the solar-determined seasons; and
  3. method: choice of integral rules-based horoscopic astrology analysis, selective method or sun sign focus.

Importantly, methods that are not subjected to testing with predictions tend to be unreliable, adding further uncertainty to the effort. The rules-based Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes, that relies heavily on predictions, has consistently been used in the work presented on this site. 

New lessons
In 2012, the search for a mundane horoscope for Mexico resulted in a tentative Taurus rising horoscope being presented. The evidence is now in. That chart did not perform sufficiently well in prediction and it has therefore been discarded. The assumption about the founding event was wrong.* A second rectification attempt is now made. 

Interestingly, the recent rectification of a horoscope for Italy brought out the importance of the unification event over a major constitutional change. It served as additional motivation for reconsidering the initial event in Mexico's founding, focusing on the declaration of Independence from Spain rather than a subsequent constitutional change. 

Mexico
Knowledge of the national entity and its history is also important for the effort. Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of around 130 million people, Mexico is second only in size to Brazil in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking nation in the world. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City, which is the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the country include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León. Mexico is famous for its long stretches of beautiful sandy beaches, its Margarita cocktails, tequila and beer; beautiful music that has had worldwide influence; the Sombrero de charro hat; and a mixture of an indigenous culture and Catholicism that has given the world the Dia de los Muertos festival. Mexico has its share of revolutionary hero's, like Pancho Villa and Emilio Zapata.

Contemporary Mexico
Currently, Mexico has the 15th largest nominal GDP (US$1.15 trillion) in the world. Annual GDP growth was almost 3% in 2016 and 2% in 2017. Agriculture comprises 4% of the economy, while industry contributes a third of the output, mostly in automotive, oil, and electronics. The largest sector is services, notably financial services and tourism. It contributes the rest or 63% of the output. 

The NAFTA agreement went into effect in 1993, resulting in a lot of US and foreign investment in Mexico in recent decades. In recent years, China has invested heavily in Mexico. As a result, Mexico is now firmly established as an upper middle-income country. The average income per person, in constant value (or purchasing power parity adjusted) US dollars, was $19,000 in 2018, up from around $14,000 in 1993. The average income is now around one-third of the US income level of $60,000 but around 20 percent higher than in Brazil. However, that is not to say that all benefit equally from the income gains. The distribution of income is very skewed in Mexico, such that the lower income groups benefit less. Indeed, income inequality has remained stubbornly high in Mexico as measured by the Gini-coefficient, which is now around 45. It is higher than in the USA (41) and India (38), but less than in Brazil (53) or in world leader, South Africa (63). The inequality in Mexico is, however, far greater than in the egalitarian Nordic countries (28) and the Czech Republic (25). The distribution of wealth is also very skewed such that a third of the nation is estimated to live in "moderate poverty." This likely explains also the attractiveness of crime, with its higher risk and reward, to young men and women raised in poverty.

Crime and corruption
In some way, criminality and corruption affect the daily life of most Mexicans. The effort of Mexican criminals to smuggle dangerous drugs to the USA, involves also human trafficking and violent crime. Movies like "No Country for Old Men" and "Sicario" and Netflix streaming series like "Narcos: Mexico" and "El Chapo" depict the ominous reality on both sides of the USA-Mexico border. Between 2006 and 2018, the Mexican government waged war on the drug cartels, with some victories along the way, including the arrest of El Chapo in early 2016 and extradition to the USA. However, as such efforts do not affect very much the production and smuggling activities, they may be viewed as "window dressing" for the "Gringos", to meet the demands of the powerful US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) for urgent action to stem the cross-border flow, in order not to lose important aid from and trade benefits with the USA. Despite recent efforts to clamp down on the drug traffic, the violence has raged. The regional cartels continue to engage in internecine killings to gain greater control of the drug market, valued annually between $50 billion and $100 billion. Close to 120,000 people have been killed in the Mexican Drug War from 2006 to 2018. 

Since his election in 2018, President Obrador has declared that he is n
o longer waging a war on the cartels. He hopes his "hugs, not bullets" policy will reduce the violence by allowing the cartels to operate in peace. The result has so far, however, been exactly the opposite. The violent infighting has increased among the powerful and well organised Sinaola, Jalisco New Generation and Gulf cartels. At the same time, the Mexican government has stated that it is demand for drugs by US citizens that is the reason for the drug production and smuggling in the first place. Further, it has suggested the US government address the drug demand at home. 


In November 2019, President Trump again angered the Mexican government by saying the Mexican cartels should be classified as "terrorist organisations". At the same time, he offered to have the US military come and clean up the country. President Obrador rejected the offer saying it would amount to an assault on Mexico's national sovereignty. The reality is that in the past, the drug cartels have funneled part of their enormous drug receipts into the Mexican government at all levels, gaining in return protection from the government and their de facto complicity. Cutting off the lucre would doubtless be anathema to the corrupt but well off officials at all levels of government. The existence and influence of organised crime suggests that Mexico is a failed state when it comes to maintaining law and order. Certainly, in "state after state" (of the Mexican union) organised criminals call the shots. Nevertheless, the central government seems to keep the country running in other respects, with overall gains in living standards for Mexicans, as earlier noted, in recent decades. Mexico cannot therefore be judged to be a failed state, even if it is clearly failing in major respects. Such major realities of life need to be reflected in the authentic horoscope for the country.

Early history
Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8,000 BC. It was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory. The vice-royalty of New Spain ruled from its politically powerful base in Mexico City. The Catholic Church played a powerful role in ruling the country as millions of indigenous inhabitants were converted to the Catholic faith. Native or indigenous people were used to mine silver in the north, turning the colony into a major source of wealth for the Spanish Empire. The Spanish crown established a standing military in the late eighteenth century to manage external threats. The military became a path for upward mobility for transplanted Spaniards. The royal army fought volunteer insurgent forces to a stalemate after a decade of armed conflict. Only when a royal military officer-turned insurgent, Augustín Iturbide, joined with insurgent leader Vicente Guerrero was independence achieved. The territory became a nation state following the crown's recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence."

Declaration of Independence
After several centuries of colonial rule, the Napoleonic revolution in Europe in the early 19th century weakened Spain's grasp on its colonies in "Spanish America"[1]. In 1808, Napoleon deposed and imprisoned Fernando VII, king of Spain, resulting in a ruling junta of Spaniards assuming power in Mexico [2]. The junta, however, lacked the legitimacy of the monarchy and on September 16, 1810, a "loyalist revolt" against the junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato. Following Hidalgo's death, a year later, leadership of the Mexican war of independence was assumed by others, including a young politician and military leader, Augustín de Iturbide. 

In 1821, General Iturbide, a monarchist, joined forces with Vicente Guerrero, a federalist, forcing representatives of the Spanish Crown to negotiate and sign "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala". Importantly, the plan gave hope to all stakeholders in the future entity, including monarchists, federalists, the church and spaniards. Importantly, the plan did not set out a single path, papering over major divisions for the sake of uniting all under the banner of independence. 

Triumph and decree
On September 27, 1821, General Iturbide and the Army of Three Guarantees made a triumphant march into Mexico City, decisively taking control of the city. This event is considered a founding event by many astrologers. However, as will be shown below, this day does not offer a convincing basis for a national horoscope, as a crucial aspect involving the Moon is not seen on that day, only on the following day.

From a historical standpoint, September 28, 1821 is also noteworthy as the Declaration of Independence was signed in the afternoon of that day. Such a collective expression is considered more meaningful, in lieu of a democratic vote, to validate the creation. The signing process is described thus: 
"On the afternoon of September 28, members of the Board met at the National Palace to draft the Declaration of Independence of the newly independent nation. The resulting two documents were drafted in its final form by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, Secretary of the Board. The acts were signed by 33 of the 38 members of the Board and Iturbide as President of the Regency of the Empire. Juan O'Donojú, last Superior Political Chief of New Spain, Francisco Severo Maldonado, José Domingo Rus, José Mariano de Almanza and Miguel Sánchez Enciso did not sign the documents, but in the acts was written: Place of signature Juan O'Donoju and later his signature was added in the printed copies. The signatures of other four members were not added. Juan Jose Espinosa de los Monteros signed twice in each act, once as a member of the Board and the second as secretary, so that the acts contain 35 signatures and the designated to O'Donojú. A copy of the act was for the government and one for the board, the last one was later sent to the Chamber of Deputies. None of the former insurgents—such as Guadalupe Victoria, Vicente Guerrero or Nicolás Bravo—signed the Declaration of Independence; the reason is unknown but probably because they wanted a Republic not an Empire."
The time identified for the conclusion of the signing ceremony is 5:04 p.m., giving 2° Pisces rising.

Early political turmoil
After the secession of Mexico was secured, Augustín Iturbide was proclaimed President of the Regency. A year later, on May 19, 1822, he was announced as the Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, reigning briefly, or until 19 March 1823. Although his reign was short, Iturbide's broad approach to gaining independence for Mexico laid the foundation for the political struggles after independence. The two ends of Mexico's political spectrum, liberals who favored populist representative government and conservatives who favored a more authoritarian regime, each gained the upper hand at various times in following decades.

Following three centuries as New Spain (a Vice Royalty of Spain), a push for independence and sovereign control by the Mexican elite began in 1806. Following the War of Independence, Mexico's independence was established in 1821. The enlightenment that infused the birth of the American Republic in 1781 had some influence on the Mexican leadership. Moreover, the essence of the US Monroe Doctrine appeared in 1823 securing the hard won independence of the former colonies from Spain and Portugal. However, in addition to the indigenous civilisation, the Spanish cultural influences remained strong in Mexico. However, the enlightenment ideals were not as widely shared in Mexico as in the USA. As a result, the first thirty-five years after Mexico's independence were marked by political instability and the changing form of the Mexican State, from a monarchy to a federated republic. There were military coups d'etat, foreign invasions, ideological conflict between Conservatives and Liberals, and economic stagnation [3]. Catholicism remained the only permitted religious faith and the Catholic Church as an institution retained its special privileges, prestige, and property, a bulwark of Conservatism. The army, another Conservative institution, also retained its privileges.

The political instability in the first Mexican Republic ultimately led to a political struggle among the European settlers of Texas to create their own Republic in the lands of Mexico. The Texians unambiguously favoured democracy over monarchy, while the Mexicans were of both minds. Like the early Americans, the Texians were likely also influenced by protestantism and enlightenment ideals. While the Mexicans had ended initial emergence of monarchy in 1823 and established a federated republic which lasted until 1835, they continued to be influenced by centralist impulses, which made a brief reappearance in 1864-1867. In any event, this ideological divide aggravated the Texians feeling of separateness, also along racial lines, leading to the push for independence in 1835. Victory was won in 1836 and in 1845 the US annexed Texas, resulting in the Mexican - American War of 1846-1848. 
“The core issue of what became a struggle between the political concepts known as centralism and federalism centered on the issue of where authority (sovereignty) should rest. In a centralized system such as a monarchy, a small circle of elites (nobles, clergymen, and military officers) made laws, enforced laws, and judged lawbreakers. The majority of the population (i.e., subjects) in a centralized system lack the ability to challenge the system since it is so powerful. However, under federalism the power rests with the individual citizens who entrust a small number of their peers as representatives who, through elections, they endow with the power to govern for them. From an organizational standpoint, authority flows from the citizen to the state in which he resides and then on to the national government. The basic concept is that this authority, although it may temporarily rest elsewhere, ultimately belongs to the citizens and not the officials they elect. This simple fact is the basis of self-government as we understand it.”[4]
Requirements of a horoscope
Any mundane horoscope should describe the potentialities of a country and be able to explain significant events in its history. Astrologers try to match their knowledge of a nation to what is seen in a selected horoscope. They attempt to see if there is a good fit. Of course, they can only scratch the surface of major trends and events but only a true horoscope will show its worth through predictive accuracy. When investigating history, the goal is to identify issues that are important for the nation, in order to see if the proposed chart speaks meaningfully to those issues. Only then can we hope to make repeat accurate predictions, involving both the nature and timing of a likely event. If they materialize, the likelihood rises that the mundane horoscope is authentic. It can then serve as the basis of further accurate predictions. Predictions are the real proving ground of astrology, anything else is just a parlour game.

Pisces rising
In the new chart for Mexico, the 2nd degree of Pisces is rising. A mundane entity displays its rising sign attributes in a more basis way than a person does. However, the salient attributes are shared. According to authors and astrologers Vinod Kumar Choudhry and K. Rajesh Chaudhary, Pisces rising entities may be described in the following way:
"Pisces is a watery sign ruled by Jupiter, the significator of fortune and knowledge. Venus, the significator for materialistic pursuits and comforts, is exalted and Mercury, the significator of intellect, is debilitated in this sign. These factors render the Pisceans romantic, imaginative, compassionate and generous."
Aside from such basic personality attributes, the placements, aspects and strength of individual planets in the horoscope account for the multitude of factors that make every singular or collective entity unique. In the Systems' Approach, this is also linked to the planets having the following functional attributes in the Pisces rising horoscope.
"Apart from Rahu and Ketu, the Sun, Venus and Saturn also become functional malefic planets for this ascendant. Mars, the Moon, Mercury and Jupiter are functional benefic planets for Pisceans. Mars acts as a Sun-like planet."
The Sun as 6th lord is reasonably strong and well placed in the 7th house of foreign agreements. This suggest that the government focuses on foreign partnerships, especially involving financial stability and public health issues. The Sun's dispositor, 7th lord Mercury, is slightly weakened by being combust, but as it is in its own sign of exaltation, it helps to offset the weakness. Indeed, the country has a big leisure industry attracting visitors from all over the world, but especially from the USA. These placements suggests Mexico can be both adamant and clever in negotiating foreign agreements and has some international influence.

Moon as 5th lord rule management, speculation and young people, is badly placed at 13° Libra and 8th house. It receives a malefic aspect from Rahu at 13° Aquarius and 12th house. This suggests that the management of the country is undermined by deceptive activities involving smuggling, far away lands and losses. The culinary tradition could involve smokey or unhealthy food, lack of hygene or be associated with the consumption of intoxicants. "Montezuma's revenge" is a well known term for foreign visitors getting an upset stomach. This placement is also consistent with the pervasive corruption in the country, at all levels, involving the drug trade, which is ruled by Rahu. The nation can become disturbed by manipulation involving speculation, management, creativity, entertainment, universities or young people. 

Mars, as 2nd lord, is a sun like planet, giving it extra strength. However, Mars is debilitated at 9° Cancer and 5th house, reducing its strength. The placement suggests status from speculation, creativity, universities and young people. However, the weakness of Mars makes its indications vulnerable to setbacks. Adding to the weakness, is the highly compromised placement of its dispositor, Moon. Moreover, by aspecting the Moon, Rahu becomes connected with Mars, adding an anti-social element that undermines the status. The military and police, ruled by Mars, become affected. This is seen in the common corruption of these professions, as well as the many young men going into gangs to earn a living. The aspect of Rahu to Moon, affecting Mars, makes life difficult for young people, universities and entertainment. Indeed, criminality and death are widespread. Around 250,000 young men are in the Mexican military forces, whereas around 100,000 young men are in the criminal network of cartels throughout the country. The cartel's also infiltrate the military and police, enabling them to act without impunity, as they have a licence to kill. In addition to the intra-gang violence due to turf fights, there have been tragic massacres of hundreds of innocents, like farm workers, migrants and students. In 2014 of a group of 43 male students were kidnapped by the police and handed over to a gang that killed them. Such crimes have come to light when the mass graves were discovered and exhumed.

Rahu's aspect does not harm the strong 8th lord Venus at 18° Libra and 8th house. This suggests that obstacles and endings are, in themselves, only an average cause of concern for life in Mexico. The country may also tend to enjoy more easy gains than many countries. However, Venus also afflicts the Moon, adding obstructions and endings to the indications of the Moon as 5th lord. Indeed, a lot of the management of the country is aimed at keeping the easy gains coming from the richer neighbour to the north.

Saturn as 12th lord is placed at 2° Aries and in the the most effective point (MEP) of the 2nd house of status and wealth. It suggests losses for the 2nd house indications, but also status from relations with far away countries. Overall, this placement detracts from the indications of Mars as 2nd lord, suggesting a loss of assets when the periods and transits are adverse. Saturn also aspects the 4th house of land and natural resources, and the 11th house of income, plans and friends. This suggests there is  potential for significant setbacks to the affected indications. Moreover, Saturn is conjunct 10th lord Jupiter at 6° Aries, ruling Mexico's position in the world. As a result, we would see that the status and international position is undermined by Mexico's anti-social activities, linked to the 12th house. As the 2nd house also rules relationships with close neighbours, it is not a surprise that the USA has begun to build an effective border barrier between the two countries, to stem the flow of illegal immigration, hard drugs and crime into the country.

Ketu is placed at 13° Leo and 6th house, where it does not afflict any planet, which is good. However, the placement suggests that strange or separative situations are involved in Mexico's conflictual issues, such as having a neighbour close their border.

Significant events
While planetary periods, both major periods and sub-periods, can indicate trends during their operation, it is the often shorter lived transits that are seen to trigger significant events, and the release of the karma seen in the horoscope. Below, we examine several significant events, their nature, impact and duration, in terms of the astrological factors and the natal potential (described above). The first two deal with the loss of territories suffered by Mexico in its early history.

Texas Republic formed
A significant setback for Mexico was the formation of the Republic of Texas on October 2, 1835. The declaration of independence from Mexico started the Texas war of independence, which included the famous Battle of the Alamo from February 23 to March 6, 1836. The war effectively ended on April 21, 1836 when the Texian army defeated the Mexican army. Mexico, however, refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, and there were intermittent conflicts between the two states into the 1840s, involving also border disputes. The United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. On December 29, 1845, Texas was annexed and admitted to the Union as the 28th US state. 

In the Systems' Approach:
1. "The close affliction of the lord of the eighth house on the fourth, second or sixth houses causes setbacks to the assets of the nation."
2. "The close afflictions to the eighth house or its lord by the most malefic planet or slow moving planets from the malefic houses or the weakness and affliction of its lord indicate significant setbacks for the country including its territorial integrity and resources.
In the 2° Pisces rising horoscope for Mexico, it is the bad placement of the 5th lord, Moon, in the 8th house of endings, under exact affliction from Rahu in the 12th house of losses, with 12th lord Saturn afflicting the 2nd, 4th and 8th houses, and the placement of 2nd lord Mars in debilitation in the 5th house, which are integrated factors in such a dramatic outcome [Comparable natal, period and transit afflictions were seen in the tentative 2° Capricorn rising horoscope for Ukraine at 5:31 p.m. (02E00) on 24 August 1991, Kiev, Ukraine, when Russia annexed Crimea on 21 March 2014].

On October 2, 1835, the Jupiter-Mercury period was operating. Transit 8th lord Venus and transit 6th lord Sun were conjunct natal 6th lord Sun at 14° Virgo and 7th house. This is exactly the presaged type of affliction, but it also occurs in the 7th house of foreign policy. Along with the below noted afflictions to the 2nd house and its lord, this suggests the crisis involved a neighbour, the United States. Further, the USA was likely in sympatico with the Texian decision, but likely preferred to avoid direct involvement in a war with a neighbouring country. Transit 12th lord Saturn was in infancy in Libra and afflicting the 8th house, 10th house, 2nd house and 5th house, further indicating loss of assets/land. Meanwhile, transit Ketu in the 9th house was casting an afflicting aspect to natal 2nd lord Mars in the 5th house. Indeed, these many transit-to-natal afflictions are all consistent with the grave setback to Mexico's "territorial integrity" at that time. Indeed, while the formal cessation of Texas took place before the Mexican American War in 1848, the de facto loss occurred in 1835.

War and loss
The formal annexation of Texas by the USA on December 29, 1845 made war unavoidable as Mexico continued to consider Texas a part of its territory despite the Texas Revolution. The Mexican–American War began on April 25, 1846 and lasted until February 2, 1848 with the defeat of Mexico. In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war. In addition to Texas, Mexico ceded the huge territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, which now constitute the many states in the south western portion of the USA (see map). The two countries exchanged ratifications of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on 30 May 1848.  Likely, this setback for Mexico's international position was even more difficult for the self image of the country.

Astrologically, the Saturn-Saturn period was operating from June 1846 to June 1849 and transit 12th lord was beginning a stationary transit conjunct the 1st house MEP, from where it also aspects the 3rd house, 7th house and 10th house. This period and transit placement of Saturn signify the dramatic finalisation of a major loss of land, and the sense of loss felt by the country. It happened despite the countries own strenuous efforts to prevent it. There was also a loss in its foreign relations and, not least, a blow to its international position. Transit Ketu was ending its stationary placement and also in the MEP of the 1st house, giving a further sense of separation for the collective identity. Transit 8th lord Venus was afflicting the 3rd and 9th house, of action and luck, suggestive of the end of a costly war effort. Transit Rahu in the 7th house of foreign policy was aspecting transit 8th lord Venus, adding a sense of manipulation through foreign policy. All the planets were in good houses, indicative of the relief that peace brings.

Earthquake
The 1985 Mexico City earthquake was a magnitude 8.0 earthquake that struck Mexico city on the early morning of 19 September 1985 at around 7:19 am (CST). It caused the deaths of at least 10,000 people and serious damage to the greater Mexico City Area.

In the Systems' Approach the incidence of earthquakes is seen if:

1. "The eighth house rules beliefs of the masses, red-tape actions, speed of execution of works, easy gains, delays and obstructions, accidents, fatal accidents, epidemics, gold and precious stones, legacies, capital gains, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, storms, etc." 
2. "The strong affliction of the lord of the eighth house to the weak lord of the fourth house or the sixth house makes the nation vulnerable to natural calamities, earthquakes and fatal accidents." 
3. "The strong prolonged transit malefic influences (i) on the weak planets in the chart of a nation or (ii) such influences on the most effective point of the fourth house or (iii) such influences on the most effective point of the  malefic houses cause natural calamities in the form of earthquakes, floods, tsunami, cyclones etc."
The Mercury-Mercury period was operating. Transit 7th lord Mercury was weak in advanced old age of Leo and the 6th house. Transit stationary Ketu at 16° Libra and 8th house was conjunct natal 8th lord Venus at 18° Libra. Venus as 8th lord was in infancy in Leo was afflicting the 6th house, Sun as 6th lord in infancy of Virgo was afflicting the 7th house, holding natal Sun and Mercury, and Saturn as 12th lord in infancy in Scorpio was afflicting the 9th house, 11th house, 3rd house and 6th house. Mars as 2nd lord was at 12° Leo and 6th house conjunct natal Ketu, the lord of sudden explosive events. Finally, transit 5th lord Moon was in advanced old age of the 8th house, indicative of significant loss of life.

Financial crisis
The 1994 Economic Crisis in Mexico, widely known as the Mexican peso crisis or the Tequila crisis, was caused by the sudden devaluation of the Mexican peso from December 20, 1994. The crisis lasted for several months. Of the indicators of currency strength (Sun, Moon, 2nd lord and 11th lord), only 6th lord Sun is strong in the 7th house.

At the time of the crisis, Mercury-Rahu period was operating. Transit 6th lord Sun was at 4° Sagittarius and 10th house MEP, conjunct and combusting 7th lord Mercury at 7° Sagittarius. Transit 12th lord Saturn was at 13° Aquarius and 12th house, exactly conjunct natal Rahu, while transit Rahu was at 20° Libra and 8th house exactly conjunct transit 8th lord Venus  and also conjunct natal Venus at 18° Libra and 8th house. Transit 2nd lord Mars was at 8° Leo and 6th house in applying aspect with transit 12th lord Saturn and natal Ketu. Finally, transit 10th lord Jupiter was in 9th house of fortune aspecting natal 2nd lord Mars in the 5th house, suggesting help from the USA to stem the crisis.

Pandemic
In March and April 2009, an outbreak of a new strain of influenza commonly referred to as "swine flu" infected many people in Mexico, causing illness ranging from mild to severe. As of April 27, 2009, all schools nationwide remained closed until at least May 6. Around 400 people were killed.

Ketu - Mercury period was operating. Transit 8th lord Venus was transiting early Pisces and the MEP of the 1st house. In late April 2009, when the number of cases and deaths peaked, transit 8th lord Venus became conjunct 2nd lord Mars, while transit Ketu at 10° Cancer and 5th house was in applying conjunction with natal 2nd lord Mars at 8° Cancer and 5th house. Transit 6th lord Sun was in mid Aries and 2nd house in opposition to first natal 5th lord Moon at 13° Libra and 8th house and then natal 8th lord Venus at 18° Libra and 8th house. Meanwhile, transit Rahu was in separating aspect to natal 6th lord Sun at 14° Virgo and 7th house.

Drug war
As described above, between 2006 and 2018, a bloody conflict took place between the Mexican government and various drug cartels that is considered to have caused the deaths of 120,000 people. Much of it was due to infighting by the cartels claiming the lives of also untold innocent people. 

Astrologically, the drug war took place when Ketu-Rahu to Venus-Rahu periods operated. Both major periods of Ketu and 8th lord Venus involve badly placed functional malefic planets and the opening and closing sub-periods involve Rahu, also a first rate and badly placed, malefic and afflicting planet.

Conclusion
The corona virus has hit Mexico later and with less intensity in the opening months of 2020. On March 24, 2020, it had claimed close to 400 people and 4 lives. The Venus - Jupiter period is operating. Natally, 10th lord Jupiter is well placed at 6° Aries and 2nd house MEP, but it is afflicted by 12th lord Saturn and undermined by the weakness of its dispositor, 2nd lord Mars. Hence, some setbacks are to be expected if transit afflictions are involved. In coming months the transit influences are seen to become more challening, especially involving sub-period lord Jupiter. Transit 10th lord Jupiter will soon become well placed but weak due to debilitation in Capricorn and the 11th house. It will also become stationary at 3° Capricorn and 11th house MEP, where it will be conjunct transit 12th lord Saturn. The contact repeats in late November 2020 and into January 2021. This placement and aspect suggests challenges for the government, legislature, trade but also young people. It will involve some reliance on friendly countries. More concerning is the transit station of Ketu at 6° Sagittarius and 10th house in exact aspect to natal Jupiter in the early summer. At that time, setbacks are possible to the indications of 10th lord Jupiter, involving even sudden, explosive developments. The government could become isolated in dealing with the situations that arise.

________
*) The earlier article explains what event was selected. It may also be useful to see how the understanding of a national entity may be swayed by the reading of a horoscope. If the predictions are repeatedly shown to be accurate, the confidence grows in chart and its interpretation. If not, the chart is rejected. 
  
References
[1] Gomes, Mario (2019). "Spanish America: From Bourbon Reforms to the Independence Process." August 11.
[2] Russell, Philip (2015). The Essential History of Mexico: From Pre-Conquest to Present. Routledge. August 27.
[3] Vazquez, Josefina Zoraida (1986). "The Texas Question in Mexican Politics, 1836-1845." The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 89, April.
https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117151/m1/365/
[4] Winders, Bruce (2016). "Federalism vs. Centralism: Why it Matters to the Texas Revolution." Alamo, Education & Curation. April 7.